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[Architecture]


LOCAL (FOLK) ARCHITECTURE      


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Our local architecture is not only a branch of the general architecture but also is one of the most fundamental evident of our culture and civilization. Local architecture which belongs to our people without exception of villager-city dweller, young-old, and woman-man shows our thoughts, beliefs, and daily life styles. Its anonymous character preponderates although architecture shows some differences from one region to another due to geographical structures and weather conditions. Similar to the products of other sub-branches of Turkish Folk Science, the architectures of these examples of civilian architectures are generally unknown. However, they have some similar characteristics. We can easily see these common properties when we look at the houses of that region. Old Turkish houses, villas (konak), and their location constitute the most important foundations of Turkish urban culture which had been formed within hundreds of years and has still been continuing today. Old Turkish Houses’ the most important property is the functionality and aesthetics in traditional architectural style. These houses attract attention for both urban locations and their architectural characteristics. Although different architectural products have been built according to the needs of the society, we can illustrate our houses within the most common and beautiful example of traditional folk architecture. Both in nomadic life style and in settling life style, Turks primarily gave importance to the traditionalism in the architecture of their houses. We could easily see the properties of a tent which is erected and dismantled in nomadic life in the inside properties of a house which is built according to the needs. For example, the carpets which are hung on the inside walls of the tent are used with the same function within a house. Geography and the natural materials determine the main structure of the house. While stone and wood are used in the Black Sea Region, cob is added to these materials in Middle and Eastern Anatolia. Around and inside Konya, only cub and wooden houses are used. In West and South Anatolia, the floor flat is made of stone, while the upper one is made of wood due to the climatic conditions. As it is seen in Safranbolu, Kula, Amasya, Tokat, Uludag that folk architecture has been using the same materials for hundreds of years, the types and forms of the houses have not been changed or deteriorated since then. When we take a glance at the house in folk (local) architecture, we see that they are convenient to the nature, generally directed to the east, and do not block the view, sunlight, air of their neighbors. It is clearly understood that inner parts reflect the life style, understanding, thought, and behaviors of the family and this simplicity, and beauty is also reflected to the outer parts. The privacy of the family is also considered just as the needs of both nucleus and large families. Therefore, two or three nucleus families can be able to separate their private lives within a house. However, other than common works such as washing the dishes, cleaning the house, there are also other parts for private needs such as baths. Building method is solved easily. No unnecessary material is used. The fact that natural materials are used for building provides healthy structures at the same time. Moreover, some kind of temporary properties or parts are considered beforehand in order to make additions to the house. Primary climatic zones in Turkey are; continental climate, sea climate, desert climate, and plateau climates. Our people who built houses in compliance with these climates from natural materials gave special importance to the outer part called “life”. This part was for common use, and was the most appropriate place to eat dinner, talk to the family members, and welcome crowded guests especially in summer with a wonderful green scene. The house is formed as a single line at the beginning, and it takes the form of L with additions and at the end U design. Thus, it enables many nucleus families to live together easily and comfortably. Our local architecture is not only a branch of the general architecture but also is one of the most fundamental evident of our culture and civilization. Local architecture which belongs to our people without exception of villager-city dweller, young-old, and woman-man shows our thoughts, beliefs, and daily life styles. Its anonymous character preponderates although architecture shows some differences from one region to another due to geographical structures and weather conditions. Similar to the products of other sub-branches of Turkish Folk Science, the architectures of these examples of civilian architectures are generally unknown. However, they have some similar characteristics. We can easily see these common properties when we look at the houses of that region.Old Turkish houses, villas (konak), and their location constitute the most important foundations of Turkish urban culture which had been formed within hundreds of years and has still been continuing today. Old Turkish Houses’ the most important property is the functionality and aesthetics in traditional architectural style. These houses attract attention for both urban locations and their architectural characteristics. Although different architectural products have been built according to the needs of the society, we can illustrate our houses within the most common and beautiful example of traditional folk architecture. Both in nomadic life style and in settling life style, Turks primarily gave importance to the traditionalism in the architecture of their houses. We could easily see the properties of a tent which is erected and dismantled in nomadic life in the inside properties of a house which is built according to the needs. For example, the carpets which are hung on the inside walls of the tent are used with the same function within a house. Geography and the natural materials determine the main structure of the house. While stone and wood are used in the Black Sea Region, cob is added to these materials in Middle and Eastern Anatolia. Around and inside Konya, only cub and wooden houses are used. In West and South Anatolia, the floor flat is made of stone, while the upper one is made of wood due to the climatic conditions. As it is seen in Safranbolu, Kula, Amasya, Tokat, Uludag that folk architecture has been using the same materials for hundreds of years, the types and forms of the houses have not been changed or deteriorated since then. When we take a glance at the house in folk (local) architecture, we see that they are convenient to the nature, generally directed to the east, and do not block the view, sunlight, air of their neighbors. It is clearly understood that inner parts reflect the life style, understanding, thought, and behaviors of the family and this simplicity, and beauty is also reflected to the outer parts. The privacy of the family is also considered just as the needs of both nucleus and large families. Therefore, two or three nucleus families can be able to separate their private lives within a house. However, other than common works such as washing the dishes, cleaning the house, there are also other parts for private needs such as baths. Building method is solved easily. No unnecessary material is used. The fact that natural materials are used for building provides healthy structures at the same time. Moreover, some kind of temporary properties or parts are considered beforehand in order to make additions to the house. Primary climatic zones in Turkey are; continental climate, sea climate, desert climate, and plateau climates. Our people who built houses in compliance with these climates from natural materials gave special importance to the outer part called “life”. This part was for common use, and was the most appropriate place to eat dinner, talk to the family members, and welcome crowded guests especially in summer with a wonderful green scene. The house is formed as a single line at the beginning, and it takes the form of L with additions and at the end U design. Thus, it enables many nucleus families to live together easily and comfortably.