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[Ottoman Architecture] [Ottoman Architecture] [Late period]


ABDULHAMIT I PERIOD AND BUILDINGS (1774-1789)      


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The Topkapi Palace was one of the main places where the change in Ottoman architecture was most clearly observed. During the reign of Abdulhamit I, some new parts were added to the palace. The Hunkar Sofa and the fountains in t reflect his period. The construction date of the Sofa, which was designed as the ceremony hall of the women’s room, is unknown. It was indeed built long before the 18th century; however, the elaborations and the fountains were applied later. The three fountains inside the building were built during the reign of Abdulhamit I. The fountains include nothing of the Ottoman style, except for the epigraph of the Sultan. There are S and C forms, elliptical forms and relieved figures on the pediments of the fountains. Use of marble and golden gild as a material is also interesting. These materials are indispensable elements of the baroque style.

Bedroom of Abdulhamit I:It is located within the Women’s Section, on the way to the bath whish connects the Valide Sultan’s Room to Hunkar Sofa, in the Topkapi Palace. The room has a high ceiling and a rectangular plan. It is believed that the building was re-organized by Osman III and thus dates earlier. The wooden ceiling is elaborated with golden gilding. Baroque elements are abundantly used in the internal decoration. Rococo is especially obvious in the fireplace and the fountain. The next room is called as the Dining Room of Abdulhamit I.

Tomb of Mustafa III: Built in 1774, it has a classical Ottoman style; however, the upper parts of the windows include baroque and rococo elaborations.

Beylerbeyi Mosque is the most important example of the mosques of Abdulhamit I period. Built in 1778-1779, the mosque was designed by the architect Tahir Aga. The baroque features of the mosque come from the high dome and the areas where dense elaborations can be seen. The Sultan’s room was designed as another residence and is called as the Sultan’s Meeting Room.

Koca Yusuf Pasha Fountain and Water-Tank: It was built in 1787 in Kabatas. There were attempts to settle the problem of water in Istanbul during the 18th century and many channels, draining lines and watercourses were built. Introduction of water to Beyoglu and increase of the amount of water received brought about construction of many buildings for distribution of water, such as fountains and water-tanks in squares. The Fountain and Water-tank of Koca Yusuf Pasha, one of these, is an interesting with its revolving surfaces, cartridges, columns embedded into walls and columns heads. There are asymmetrical carves in the fountain mirror, which is an important element of baroque style. There are poems on the fountain written about water. Use of water and architecture together has been significant for the European baroque style, as well.

Sebsefa Kadın Kulliyah: Built in 1787 in Unkapanı, the kulliyah was requested by the wife of Abdulhamit I. It consists of a mosque and a primary school. The most is constructed on a platform out of stone and bricks. The final congregation place, consisting of five sections, has an upper floor called as the sultan’s meeting room, where the sultan and his officers made their Friday prayers. These rooms, which were included in almost all of the great mosques of the 19th century, are called as sultan’s kiosk, sultan’s mansion or the sultan’s office. In this mosque, the final congregation place and the sultan’s meeting room are integrated as one. The high rim of the dome, the platform beneath, the stairs before the entrance, thin and volute columns, round arches and C figures on the arches above the doors are the baroque elements of the building.