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[Ottoman Architecture] [Ottoman Architecture] [Late period]


MAHMUT I PERIOD (1730-1754) BUILDINGS AND BEGINNING OF THE OTTOMAN BAROQUE       


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Architecture was obviously influenced by western baroque and rococo styles after 1740s. The 18th century was a period when the western influences were adopted and the western forms and styles were interpreted together with the Turkish architecture on many buildings. The Imperial Architects' Hearth continued its activities in this period and was an important authority in architecture until the declaration of Tanzimat (Reforms). In these circumstances, as a result of the merge of baroque and rococo with the strong tradition of classical Ottoman architecture, a different and authentic understanding emerged and the Turkish baroque style came into being.

The first application of Ottoman baroque and rococo on the whole of a building was in the Mehmet Emin Aga Fountain, built between 1739 and 1740. The building is located in Kabatas in Istanbul and consists of three sections, which are the fountain, the water-tank and the cemetery. The water-tank ascends on a platform and the round body of the fountain, vertical and horizontal gradual construction of faces, Corinth columns heads, cartridges shaped as S and C and the epigraph give an active effect to the building. The fountains and water-tanks, as the earliest examples of the Ottoman baroque and rococo, were constructed against walls and protruding outside, in contrast to the fountains of the Tulip Era, when they were constructed in open squares.

The Turkish baroque style was realized in some units of the Topkapi Palace, where we can trace the first effects of the process of westernization. The palace had always been a pioneer in adopting the western aesthetics and the first examples of the new style were applied in the Sofa Kiosk, Sultan’s Sofa, Valide Sultan’s Bedroom and Kiosk of Osman III inside the Topkapi Palace.

Kara Mustafa Pasa Kiosk (Sofa Kiosk): It is in fact a construction of 17th century; however, it was changed with the arrangements carried out in 1752. It is also named as Merdivenbası Mansion. The wooden building in the Topkapi Palace stands on 16 columns. It has a plan of a Turkish house; however, it includes several important novelties. Round arched doors, columns heads in European style and figures shaped as S and C gives the inner part of the building a baroque effect. Elaborated walls are surrounded with plaster and cornices, built on one another and the ceiling has a rich decoration.