Having extraordinary beauties, Turkey has a wide variety of fauna and flora. As Turkey has suitable ecological characteristics in terms of geographical position, climate, geological structure, and land and water resources; and as it is located on the migration route of birds and as it sheltered a number of animals in the ice age, it has a wide variety of fauna.
Turkey is known as the mother land of many animal species. For instance, Red Deer originally comes from the Mediterranean Region and Tragopan originally comes from the Samsun Region.
There are 120 types of mammal animal species, 400 types of bird species, 130 types of reptile species and 300 types of fish species in Turkey. 15 mammal species; 46 bird species; 18 reptile species, and 5 frog species among the abovementioned species face endangering.
Anatolian Peninsula has a wide variety of flora rare all around the world with the effect of being the natural partridge between three continents.
Although the number of plant species all across Europe is approximately 12.000, today the number of the plant species found out until now nearly rose up to around 3000 of these plant species are endemic species peculiar to Turkey only. (Endemic specie means species peculiar to a certain region and which cannot be seen in any other regions apart from that certain place.)
While the number of the species composing the fauna in Europe is approximately 60.000, the number of the species composing the fauna of Turkey is nearly 80.000.
The total marshy area of Turkey is over 1.000.000 hectare. There are over 250 Marshy Area. In order to protect such natural values and living resources, Turkey has been a party to various international agreements and continues her efforts to join the new ones.