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TRADING STRUCTURES      


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The Bazaars


In the Ottoman urbanism, the center of the town is usually an area which mostly consists of religious and trading structures. The city’s center which accomodates the shopping and trading life exists of; bazaars, covered markets, trading structures such as arastas and bedestens which are local inns that consist of trading characteristics.

In order to provide income for the charity society, the foundation gave specific importance in the construction of the bazaar’s structure. There were also bazaars in specific areas except for areas around the mosques. During the Ottoman Period there was a closed market built in almost every city, in areas that were mostly visited by the public and there income was donated to mosques and charity societies. The Ottomans also provided the first security organization for the bazaars. Problems concerning the bazaar were solved by the cheif of the bazaars.

“Arasta” is the name of bazaars which consist of tradesmen who generally do similiar bussiness. Arasta’s are foundation structures that were intended to bring income. They were built next to big mosques or madrasahs, alms houses or turkish baths. There was a preyer dome built in the middle of the Arasta. Every morning the tradesmen would gather here and pledge that they would do honest work and not fool their customers.

Among these trading structures, Bedestens also had an important position. Bedestens were covered bazaars which firstly buyed and selled fabric, later on they also consisted of the trading of valuable goods, antique goods and the storage and selling of arms. Bedestens were effective establishments similiar of our days banks and stockmarkets functions. Besides buying and selling, you could also give in your valuable goods, money, contracts etc. To be kept and protected in a safe in exchange of a fee. For this reason, private safes and burried treasure chests were found in cellars. Additionally auction bids were done here also.

Covered Bazaar(Charshi-yi Kebir)


The first step of the establishment of this baazar was taken by Sultan II. Mehmet (Fatih), he had the Old Bedesten (5th century) built on a large area of land which was located between The Beyazit and Nuruosmaniye Mosques. Bedestens environment started to consist of shops, in the meanwhile Sultan II. Mehmet (Fatih) also had many shops built there. Sandal Bedestan took it’s place in this gradually growing environment. Yet again shops, Arasta’s with it’s vault covered streets and fundamental inns that were intended to provide income for charity foundations took place in this environment. These roofless open street shops were firstly covered with temporary covers to be protected by sun and rain. Later on it was roofed with a wooden roof covered with bricks. However all of the wooden sections of the bedesten were harmed from fires. Only the stone built bedestens were protected. Due to the reasons of protection and the fear of fires they started to build the bazaar’s walls and roofs out of stones and bricks. Various sources state thet these changes tok place in the biggining of the 18th
century. However The Covered Bazaar was stil harmed by fires and was largely destroyed in the earthquake that took place in the year 1894. After the earthquake during the period of II. Abdulhamit it was renewed, its area was limited, the exits were reorganized and restored to alarge extend. Like a giant sized maze, it consists of about 60 streets, more then three thousand stores. “Kapalı Charshi” is the world’s most oldest and biggest bazaar that is located in the center of the city of İstanbul. As it was in the past, this bazaar has a particular line of

work on each street and hand made poducts are provided under a full inspection. This Bazaar was highly respected for it’s commercial morals and traditional customs.

Mostly Jewelery stores are located on the main street of the bazaar and Gold jewelers are located on the side street that opens to this street.

Egypt Bazaar (Misir Charshisi)


The Egyptian Bazaar was established by Mehmet IV’s mother Sultan Hatice Turhan as a fundamental structure for The New Mosque. According to the sea, the L planned Arasta was behind and on the west side of the mosque. One side of the L is about 120 meters vertical of the mosque and the other arm that was positioned paralel to it is 150 meters. In the middle of each arm, there is a vault covered street that consists of lined up stores located on each side. Stores that sell various herbs, spices, dryed fruits and dryed nuts are much more frequent.


The First Trust Inn (Birinci Vakif Han)


Is located in Sultanhamam. This is the first project that took place after a suggestion to value the old and wrecked Fund structures in İstanbul and build a series of commerce inns, so that they would bring income. It was planned by Architect Kemalletin in the year 1911 and its construction was finished in the year 1918. This 7 story Inn which the basement was included, was built according to the peninsula’s traditional architecture and was shown as one of the ideal structures of I.National Architect period.


The Ottoman Bank Building (Osmanlı Bankası Binası)


This structure which is located in Karakoy is one of Vallaury’s most splendid structure’s. The Center of Commerce’s most magnificent structure was built in the 1980’s. It is a Neo-Classical styled structure. The series of monotonous windows, the rustic siding arrangement on the ground floor, the exterior boisterous heavy corinth structured plasters and with its huge triangular frontals, it is formed by a heavy mass.


The Karakoy Palace (Karakoy Palas)


This block of offices were built in the 20th century by an Italian architect Giulio Mongeri in an exclusive style.


Water Structures (Su Yapilari)


Istanbul is a city which always had a water problem due to the fact that it is not located near fresh water sources. The Byzantines and the ottomans tried to solve this problem by building several water structures.

Aqueducts, are arches built on a bridge like water way so that it could exceed the valleys that the water was being transferred to the city.

The Bozdogan (Valens Aqueduct)


The one part that is undamaged is in Sarachhanebashi. It is an aqueduct from the late roman period. It is known that during the period of the Hadrianus Emperor (2nd century B.C.) and during the period of the Valens Emperor (during the second half of the 4th century B.C.) Istanbul’s water structures were given a special importance. However, the certainty of what period the Bozdogan aqueduct is unknown. This two rowed aqueduct was built with straight cutout stones and has been restored and repaired several times during the Ottoman period.

The Maglova Aqueduct


The Ottomans not only protected and enhanced the water facilities that remained from the Byzantines but they also built new structures. The Maglova Aqueduct which belonges to the 16th century, is one of the monumental examples of the double rowed aqueducts. The present remaining aqueduct which is under the Alibey Barrage Lake is Architect Sinan’s work of act. Due to the fact that it has been handled with formal concern, the aqueduct in Kemerbrgaz which is 258 meters long is not only evaluated as an architectural structure.


Cisterns


Water that was transferred to the center of the city by the mediation of aqueducts and pipes, would be gathered in a covered large water dispension facility. Some open water reservoirs were still being used since the Byzantine period. However the only water gathering facilities that carry importance as architectural structures are the cisterns. They are usually simple structures. They are rectangular, and are covered with bricks and archs. This cover system is balanced by stone columns which carry these water facilities.

The Basilica Cistern


It is the most biggest closed cisterns in İstanbul. The structure is 143 meters long and 65 meters wide. It exist of a 9800 metersquared area. It has exactly 336 columns. Some paticular columns have different features. Some of the columns heads are different and motifs are worked on on some of the cylinder shaped columns. The coverage system consists of vaults that are in between straight aqueducts. The Basilica Cistern used to be able to be strolled in a rowboat, and after the restoration was completed in the year 1985 it has been opened for public services.From time to time several artistic activitivies (ei Istanbıl Bienali) have been taken place here.

The Binbirdirek Cistern


It is located in a place between Sultanahmet and Cagaloglu near the Court House. It is the second biggest cistern in İstanbul. Its dimension is 64x56 meters. They are all the same type, it has 224 impost headed columns.


Fountains and Water Resources


The Ottomans had improved the water problem with a finely solved system. The water was transferred to a fountain from the point that it was gathered. The fountains form a important group for structures, interesting water that were made with Anatolian Turkish architecture. The Ottoman Empire had a big role in accelerating the citys constuction of the water system and after the 16th century they had several fountains made. Water from the general water system was not distributed to the publics houses until the death of the Empire. The public of this city would get the water that they needed from street fountains. Some of the home owners would build wells and cisterns. The Saka’s are the people appointed to distribute water to the houses.

The outdoor fountains, were designed like; sebils, outdoor preying areas, fenced preying areas, children schools, mosque entrance doors etc…or individually. Fountain architect had a simple structure. The importance of the architecturural history was shown by the richness of its design. The clasical eras fountains had a simple structure. There would be a pointy niche on the frontline and in this niche there would be a mirror stone with a faucet placed in it. Also in the design of the fountain there is a deep basin which the running water flows into. On the mirror stone, there would be an inscription. On this inscription the type of water, the person who got the fountain built, a praise, and the date would be included. Most of the time, witty remarks about water would be included.

The interesting thing about water architecture in the past, was that on special days or on religious holidays the sebils would pass out free water or the charity foundation sebills would pass out sherbert (a sweetened fruit juice). These Sebils had a built wall about the hieght of a humans waist line. On top of this there would be embroided metallic systems placed in between the outer columns. There were little holes on the metallic systems, about the level of the built wall, and here there would be the chains that connected the water jugs to the fountain. The water jugs were used to pass out water. They would go into the sebils and would serve through the bronze railing that opened up to the street.

The oldest fountain that is still present in Istanbul, is the 1485 dated Davut Pahsa Fountain. Some examples of the fountains that reflect the clasical Ottoman periods style are; The Ashikpasha Fountain (1564), The Edirnekapi Kalin Ali Pahsa Fountain (1565) and The Halich Ibrahim Pahsa Fountain (1599). There had been a change in the clasical fountain design style in the 17th century. This centuries most magnificent fountain is The Hatice Valide Sultan Fountain (1663)which is located near buildings that are adjacent to the Eminonu New Mosque. It is a corner fountain that was designed with a Sebil. It was enclosed with a wide canopy and its roof was built with lead.

The main important change of the architectural design of fountains took place in the 18 th century. During the period of Ahmet III (1703–1730) big public square fountains gained importance and on them were embossed decorations that reflected the style of The Tulip Era. In 1728 The Ahmet Fountain that is located in front of The Topkapi Palace Bab-i Humayun is the most important example of this period. This water structures square plan consisted of a large braided cover. On the top cover there are 5 cupolas which were also used for decorative purposes. There was a fountain placed in every point of the squared plan and there were public fountains in each corner. Besides the geometric decorations on the siding, they were mainly decorated with floral motifs. The flowers in a vase motif, and waving baroque items on the eaves were conspicuous elments.

The Mehmet Meydan Fountain (1728) located at the Iskele Mosque in Uskudar, has a cubic frame, which chamfers at the corners, has been converted to an octogonal prizma. At each chamfered corner there is a small fountain, limited with twisted posts. The part that faces the sea is the fountains main siding and on this siding a vased flower motif with decorations around it is present. The fountain is covered with a wide eaved roof.

Another fountain which has similiar features is The Tophane Mahmut I Fountain. The same naturalistic style is came upon here.

Within the year 1740 firstly the Rococo design then following it the Baroc design features started to appear. The siding of the Fountains and public fountains were influenced with these features. The 1740 dated Mehmet Emin Aga Fountain and Public Pountain is located in Kabatash, istanbul. The Ottomans used the Baroc and Rococo designs for the first time on this structure. The structure consists of three parts; sebil, faucet and a fence. The whole siding is very active. Also the corinth headed plasters, curly arches and the details of the other decorations are the effects of west styled architecture. Empty cartridges were used in the making of the S and C motifs which are the uniqueness of the Baroc design.

The following fountains were constructed with similiar characteristics with The Mehmet Emin Aga Sebil. The Koca Yusuf Pahsa Fountain which is located in Kabatash, was constructed at a much later date in the period of Abdulhamit I in the year 1787. It is a very interesting structure which consists of an active surface, cartridges, wall embedded posts and post heads. The fountain mirror has assymetrical holes appropriate to the Baroc character.

The Mihrishan Sultan Fountain located near the Eyup Sultan Mosque, is a water structure that was constructed in the year 1795 and belongs to the Selim III period. The sebil part of this fountain has a excessive semi circular shape and has been rised with a step placed at its base. It has a harmonic surface. The area is held together with a two staged arangement. It consists of plaster on the surface, architrave, frontal and molding. This application enhanced the surface activity. Also molded shaped motifs like the S and C forms consisted.

The European Style which effected the Ottoman art during the Mahmut II period was the Neo-Clasical (Ampir) style. This effect was seen after the first half of the 19th century by the constructions of the fountains. The Eyup Pertevniyal Kadin Efendi Fountain was designed in a neo-clasical style. The surface ressemles the roman triumphul archs, the post-beam-arch threesome were made in standard size and adaption. The element are large and full.

In the 19th century the anti-muslims, later on the activeness of the foreign architects, excelerated the foreign sourced styles. However, at the beginning of the 20th century the German Fountain that is located in Sultanahmet, and was designed by the German Architect Spitta, ressembled the Emin Bayindir Dome Fountain in Ahlat, it is an example of the combination of a Turkish-Islamic and west architectural style.


Turkish Baths (Hamam)


A place or structure which is used to bathe in a public property is called a hamam. The Romans were the first to construct the turkish bath (hamam) structures which were heated and had hot water. The Roman Hamams were not only a bathing facility but were also a public center.

After the Romans, the turkish baths (hamams) were once again turned into an important structure type with the efforts of the Ottomans. When a big mosque was to be constructed, they would firstly begin by building a hamam due to the importance of cleansiness of their religious belief, so that the workers would be able to bathe. There were also public turkish baths (hamams) located in bazaars and districts for the cleansiness of the common people. Due to the Islamic beliefs during that period, women were restricted to go outdoors. So these hamams were a place where thay were free. It was a tradition for the men to give their woman money to go to the turkish baths (hamams) at least once a week. Otherwise it was shown as a reason for divorce. They would go in the morning, entertain, choose a girl for their son and then arrive back home in the evening.

The Ottoman Turkish Baths (hamams) were generally smaller according to the Roman baths but, were more functional.They showed Central plan. They usually consist of 4 sections: ‘camekan’glassy partition, coldness, tepedness, and the harare.

The ‘camekan’ glassy partition is usually made from round glass, it is a wide area that consists of many windows, it is covered with a dome, the floors are lined with marble, there are seatings lined on the sides and there is a pond with a fountain in the middle. From here you go to the coldness. Here there is a roof lantern. On one side there are toilets and shaving rooms.

The third section is the harare the main bathing room. The flooring is marble, it generally consists of rooms, a dome and normal ordered platforms. The corner rooms connect to each shared room with an arched door. Under the middle dome there is a circular or polygon marble platform on which one lies to sweat and there are marble basins found on the surrounding walls.

The heat temperature in the Turkish Baths (hamams) is provided by a fire burned in the boiler room which is the room next to it.. Here wood is burned, the bath water is heated in copper boilers, the hot air and steam is circulated in a special galery under the flooring which is called cehennemlik, it is passed to canals in the walls and goes outdoors from the sides of a dome. The canals which the smoke passes is called tuteklik.

The Turkish Bathes are usually double constructed so that both woman and men equally could benefit from it. The intense use of plaster workmanship was specifically used in the Ottoman Turkish Baths (hamams). Also the usage of different cover systems. Since the first examples, they have passed to the covered system, this has helped to bring out a dynamic interior decorated environment.

After the early models in the cities Bursa and Edirne, the Ottomans continued to construct the Turkish Baths in the cities Fetih and Istanbul. They were constructed much more larger. Five large Turkish Baths were constructed in Istanbul during the Mehmet II period. These are; Irgat, Azeps, Vefa, Eyup and Fatih Chukur Turkish Baths. In the Clasical era the big double Turkish Baths with men-women seperated sections were preferred. The most splendid Turkish Baths of this period were the Architect Sinan designed Sultanahmet Turkish Bath and the Haseki Hurrem Sultan Turkish Bath (1556) located in Ayasofya. This structure was contructed of both men and women compartments built on the same axes, joined from point to point, had stone and brick ranges, and its flooring was decorated with colorful marble.

The Beyazid Complex or the Patrona Halil Turkish Bath, The Zeyrek Pasha Ceramic Turkish Bath (1546), Suleymaniye Complex Turkish Bath (1550-1557), Edirnekapi Mihrimah Sultan Turkish Bath are other important examples. The Chemberlitash Turkish Bath (17th century) and the Cagaloglu Turkish Bath are important examples of the later period of time. With its closed and open type room styles, divided archs, pond and fountain ornaments the Cagaloglu Turkish Bath carries signs of the Baroc Style.


Transportation Structures


As the international harbour, Istanbul, has not only been open to suburban traffic but has acommodated urban traffic throughout all history. Most constructed traffic structures were a must in order to provide transportation for sea ways, land route and in a more current time air ways.


Bridges


They have been constructed to cross over streams, valleys and pits. Water archs bring a formal look to the bridges. Stone bridges, not only ease the crossing over water but with its decorative structure has a monumental appearance. A bridges main parts are the arches and bases which carry the bridge, the pavement which provides the passage, the division which is arranged for overflowing water, the spurs designed according to the water level , the bases which are useful for lowering the water pressure and the railings.

The construction of bridges has gained importance during the Fetih years. The Uzunbridge located in Edirne was one of the most important examples of the Ottoman bridges. The most important bridge structures of the architect Mimar Sinan were the Silivri Bridge (1568), The Buyukchekmece Bridge (1567-1568) and the Haramidere Kapiagasi Bridge. The Buyukchekmece Bridge shows advanced technique. The first division seperates the lake and the sea, is on the bosphorus and is 635 meters long, the second has seven, the third has five and the fourth has four divisions.

The Bosphorus that divides the European and Asian side of Istanbul and the division that Halich provides of the old Istanbul and the Galata district are the characteristics which gained Istanbul geographic importance of water. The water division of these districts had the necessity to be connected to eachother. The bridges that connected Halich’s sides has always existed, yet they were constructed from wood. Later on in the year 1875, the British constructed the Galata Bridge which is located between Eminonu and Karakoy. It was constructed with a steel frame and wooden road and pavement. In the year 1930 a passing fee was taken and has been restored and repaired for several times. The Bridge has been in service for about 100 years. This bridge has been one of Istanbul’s symbols with its under bridge restaurants and people fishing on the bridge. Right after the fire that damaged the bridge in May 1992, the construction of a bridge that was nearby was speeded up and the new bridge was open for service in the same year. The Galata Bridge, with The Galata Tower on one side and the silluettes of the New Mosque that it reaches on the other side, are the historical peninsula’s most precious sights. Besides pedestrial and vehicle transportation it also has a passageway for the speedy streetcar.

In the 1950’s due to the increasing population and obligated urbanization, vehicle traffic increased, therefore the transportation between the European and Asian side became a problem. Priorly the transportation was provided only with ferryboats and ships. Due to the reason of the increasing operation problems, the Bosphorus Bridge located between Beylerbeyi and Ortakoy which is 1074 meters long, 33,40 meters wide and 64 meters higher than the sea was constructed in the year 1973. It is a hanging bridge. Later on in the year 1988 the Fatih Sultan Bridge was constructed between Kavacik and Hisarustu.

The usage of urban and suburban railway transportation systems started in the late 19th century. The historical Karakoy-Beyoglu Tunel opened in the year 1875. With the opening of the Sirkeci-Edirne and the Haydarpasa-Izmit railways in the year 1873 the operating of the suburban trains began. The construction of the Sirkeci Station building which was designed by German Architect Jachmund with a combination of the Turkish-Islamic style, was finished in the year 1890. Between the years 1906-1909, the Haydarpasa Station building was again designed by German architects Otto Ritter and Helmut Cuno. The building which was built right on the waterfront, shows signs of the German Baroc design with its high roof and monumental frontage. Both Stations are still in frequent use and take place in the symbolic daily used places in Istanbul.

Besides these two big Stations, there are also simple railway stations in both the European and Asian sides.

Istanbul is also a city which owns sea transportation importance. The Istanbul Harbours were modernized with the completion of the Golden horn (1895),the Sirkeci (1900) and the Haydarpasha 1903 Harbours. Formerly they consisted of the carrying of merchandise and human boats between had wooden piers. However after the expanding of settlement areas and the improving technology the establishment of the Shirket-I Hayriye took place. Therefore the Bosphor ship journeys began. Herewith the relation to this, examples of the Ottoman neo-clasical style was used in the following harbours. Besides the Beshiktash Ship Harbour which was designed by the architect Ali Talat, there are several harbour buildings along the bosphor European and Asian sea side.

While trying to keep up with severe traffic, in our day, Istanbul has International airports, harbours, highways, railways, sea buses and metros for Local transportaion. The usage of the structures constructed in the past are also being used along with the new ones.


Defence and Security Structures


Because of Istanbul’s strategic position, structures having to do with defence and security had importance in every era.

Istanbul has been surrounded by walls since the Byzantine era, they are located all over the historical peninsula. The black walls located between the Marmara seaside and the golden horn, belonged to 96 towers and are three stages: The main wall has a shorter wall in front of it and has a dike on the outer side of it. The most important black wall, the Golden Door which was the most important entrance of the city was also used during traditional crossings. Sea side walls were one staged due to the natural protection of the sea. Since the marmara sea coast was streamy there was no need for extra protection but the Golden Horn entrance was continuously chained during the Byzantine Era.

Maidens Tower which is one of ıstanbuls sybolic structures, was constructed in the late 5th century B.C. by the greek commander Alkibiades so that they would be able to control the ships coming from the Blacksea. All along history this tower was used as a light house and customs station. After the capture of Istanbul, Sultan Mehmet (Fatih)the II renewed the tower as a embrasure surrounded stone tower. Later on after several renovations and additions it is in its current condition. This structure which is located 180 meters distanced from Uskudar Salacak seaside on a cliff, has beb renewed several times. Today it is in service as a touristic establishment. West resources introduces this structure as the tower which Leander drowned while swimming to reunite with his lover Hera. Another story is that a emporer had a dream which he saw that his daughter had gotten bit by a snake ansd so he placed her there to protect her. However, a snake that came out of the fruit basket that was sent to her had gotten int the tower that was in the middle of the sea had caused great tragedy and she had died by a snake bite.

The Galata Tower, which is located between the Karakoy and Tunelbashi districts, was constructed during the Byzantine Era (1348) in the northwest corner of the walls that surrounded the Genava Colony in Galata. It has a diameter of 16,45 meters, the wall thickness of 3,75 meters and is about 65 meters high. In several periods of times it was used as a dungeon and observatory. It has been present in our day after several renovations and changes and has been used as a touristic facility ever since the year 1967.

The Beyazit (Serasker) Tower


It is located in the garden of the University of Istanbul, which is in the Beyazit district. It has been designed as a wooden tower, by the architect Senekerim Balyan and its intention of use was to sight the upcoming fires in Istanbul. It is 85 meters high and the towers cylindrical body is arised with a pedestral. There is an onion shaped passage between the towers body and pedestal. The same shape also exists between the pedestal and observation floor. After the damage that it has been through in the big earthquake, it has been renovated and continued to be used for observation purposes. Additionally, at night the following day’s weather situation is defined by the colorful lights on the towers top.

The most magnifecent door on the walls, is the one closest to the Marmara Sea, the Golden Gate (Altin Kapi). This ceromonial door has been placed between two marble towers like a victory arch. Armies that returned with victory, the emporer and the general town would enter through this door. It is surrounded by 7 towers with 5 tower additions, that have been transformed into a domestic castle remaining from the Turkish period. Sultan Mehmet II, had the Yedikule Castle constructed by surrounding it with the two towers that remained from the middle 5th century of The Golden Gate and two other towers, during the reign of the Byzantine emperor Theodosius II (1458). The structure was completed after the addition of three cylindiric towers and connected walls. The walls are 12 meters in height and 5 meters in width. In the past it was used as a treasury, warehouse and delagate prison but presently, with its interesting entry and Golden Gate towers, it is used as a city museum. Several activities and concerts are organized here in the summer. The castle located on the asian side was intended to keep the transit entrance under control of Rumelihisari together with the Bosphorus located on the opposite coast and it composes a environment of a picturesque landscape, with its constellation tilted old wooden houses.

The Rumeli castle which is located on İstanbuls Bosphors Rumeli side, was constructed by Sultam Mehmet II in the year 1452 in intension of keeping the Byzantine’s from assistance. This artwork which decorates the Bosphor coast with its architectural strokes has many names such as; Halil Pahsa, Saruca Pahsa and Zaganos Pahsa, consists of one polygon, three big cylindrical towers are 7 meters in width and connected to the walls which together surround a 250x125 metered area.

In Istanbul’s Asian coast, in the district of Selimiye/Uskudar, Selim II, had a barrack constructed during the years 1794-1799. After this structure burned down, Mahmut II had a stone barrack structure designed by the architect Krikor Balyan, constructed on the same area during the years 1827-1829. The structure owns its present appearance, after the additions that were made during the Abdulmecit period. It was constructed on a piece of land which is bent toward the Bosphor, has a basement and three full floors. Four towers with seven floors each was placed on each corner of the structure. It was used for several purposes in the past but it is presently used for its purpose of constuction, it is a military building. It also provides a contribution in Istanbul’s silhouette.


Other Civilized architechtural Examples


Along with educational and public buildings, embassy buildings also engage an important place in Istanbul.

The embassy’s in Istanbul, gained importance during the 18th century,after the improvement of their relations with the west.As a result many embassy buildings were constructed on the Beyoglu and Bosphorus districts. Among the constructed embassy buildings, the Embassy of France which is located at the entrance of Istiklal Street, is one of its earliest structure examples, which is why it attracts attention. The Embassy of Italy which is located in Tarabya, is one of the most emportant examples of the art nouveau designs in Istanbul.

Among the educational structures, Sanayi-I Nafise School (Fine Arts Academy), located in Gulhane that was designed by Salvatore Vallaury and the Museum of Archeology buildings reflect the west neo-classical architechtural style. The construction of both buildings were brought up by Osman Hamdi. He was a artist, archeologist and statesman. The Museum of Archeology attracts attention by the design on its simple frontage design and the ressemblence of an antique Greek temple on its entrances.

The Medical Faculty of theUniversity of Marmara which used to be called Haydarpasha School of Medicine (1901) was one of Vallaury’s education relavent structure. It is a magnificent monumental structure which gained atouch of the Turkish architechtural style and eclectic method with its compressed pointy edges, onion shaped domes which are placed on each tower that is placed on each side of the monumental entrance.

Vallaury also designed the Duyun-u Umumiye which was constructed for the purpose of the transfer of the Ottomans foreign debts. This structure is a eclectec method that Turkish architechtural design was used in on its doors, windows, balcony archs, fringes and roof railings.

In the last period of the Ottomans, after the process of turning the Mail Organization into an establishment was being speeded up, architect Vedat Tek designed the Sirkeci Grand Postoffice Building located in Istanbul. It is one of the interesting examples of civil architecture.

With the rise of the tourism in Istanbul in the 20th century and several big business and shopping centers, Istanbul takes place in the hotel city appearance. It has been a part of discusionn that part of them ruin the historical structure and silhouette of İstanbul. However the Hilton Hotel building is not apart of this discussion because of its slanted position. This hotel building that was constructed in the year 1952, is one of the first examples of functional architecture in Turkey. Sedat Hakki Eldem also has a part in the design.