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BODRUM      


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The most glorious historical construction remains in Bodrum (Halicarnassos) from the ancient times is the Bodrum Castle which was constructed by the middle age knights- members of Hohannis Sect coming from Rhodes- on a small island and which was connected to the main land artificially later on.

This wonderful holiday town the harbor of which can bear various and delicate yachts coming from all over the world attract the holidaymakers profoundly. Long beaches near the town are ideal for those who love sun and water sports. Not only the beaches of Bodrum but also numerous caves and the submarine life having various species are fantastic for people to admire the town.

The fame of the ship construction experts of Bodrum can be dated back to ancient times. Ship construction first started in the 4th century B.C. Ptolemy, the King of Egypt, got the war ships constructed in Bodrum. The ship construction experts of our age still continue to construct “Tirhandil” and “Gulet” type ships as it was done in the past. Especially the Gulet type ships are very suitable for trekking.

The remains all around Bodrum indicate that Bodrum has a 5000 year history. Bodrum had been the city of Caria civilization and Leleg civilization in the past. When it was taken from the Lydians by the Persians in the 6the century B.C. it was being governed by the Lygdanis family of Halicarnassos. Mausoleum, the Caria Governor, moved the capital city of Caria from Mylasa to Bodrum in 377 B.C. Having been taken under the control of Helens and Romans, Bodrum was taken by Turks only in the 11th century. The knights of Rhodes conquered the city again in 1402. Bodrum was governed by Rhodes until it was retaken by Suleyman the Magnificent. The oldest name of the city is Halicarnassos. During the period of Byzantines, it was named as Petrum in the time of Petronin Knights.

Bodrum is the city where Herodotus, known to be the father of the history of Bodrum, was born.

Mousolos Monumental Grave which is one of the Seven Wonders of the World was in Bodrum. The grave was so glorious that all of the monumental graves constructed from then on were called as mausoleum. The height of the monumental grave which was constructed by the architecture Pytheos hired by the wife of Caria Satrap Mousolos who is Artemisia in the name of Caria Governor Mousolos was 46 m. The construction of the grave was started in 377 B.C. and was completed 358 B.C. There were sculptures demonstrating the king and the queen in the war carts of four horses on top of the Monument. The remains of the sculptures are among the most important artifacts of the British Museum of London which is the most famous museum of the world. Today, the place of the monumental grave is indoor and outdoor museum. The ground where the Mausoleum is located is indeed a hole. Some remaining parts can be seen in this place. It is also possible to see the model of the Mausoleum in the exhibition hall of the museum. English archeologists excavating the site in the 19th century took the raisings of the glorious monumental grave to the British Museum.

Bodrum Castle named as St. Peter Castle in the Middle Age is a model for the architecture during the period of Crusades. The materials of the mausoleum which was damaged during the earthquake were used for the construction of the walls of the castle which is located on a rock surrounded by the sea in its three sides. There are 249 emblems on the walls of the castle. The flowers and trees within the inner garden of the castle constitute a beautiful view. The castle is used as Sub-marine Archeological Museum today. The oldest ruin in this museum belongs to the First Bronze Age. Amphora Collection (the oldest item is from 1400 B.C.), Caria Princess, Glass Ship and Torture Room are among the most attractive items exhibited in the exhibition halls of the museum. Caria Princess Ada governed Caria from the capital city Halicarnassos as the Persian Satrap between 344 and 341 B.C. Lahdi of the princess remaining until today since the day 2400 ago is worth seeing.

The ancient theatre on one side of Goktepe Hill is located at the entry of Bodrum. The theatre having the sections called Skene, orchestra and cavea was constructed during the period of governorship of Mauseolous. The lower part of the section Cavea (sitting lines) is rather firm. Both sides of Cavea were surrounded by a wall called analemma. In the altar in front of the orchestra, Animals were sacrificed for Dionysus, the Wine God. The view from Goktepe Hill where there are lots of graves caved into the rocks during the Hellenistic and Roman period is very attracting. The combinations of blue, green and white are glaring. Two-storied houses which are white washed and the doors and windows of which are painted in blue are the typical buildings peculiar to Bodrum.

The inner wall of Pedesa (Gokceler) which was one of the cities of Leleg is firm and in a good condition. The castle was constructed on a firm rock. The ruins of the city walls are also seen in the region.

Increasing numbers of visitors made the people of Bodrum to make and sell new souvenirs. All kinds of leather products, traditional blue balls are sold in the narrow streets. There are shops where attractive carpet

Carpets, slippers, embroideries and original woolen dresses and blouses are sold.

Bodrum the people of which are always smiling and hospitable also attracts many Turkish artists and actresses thanks to its art galleries and bohemian atmosphere. You can also have the chance to enjoy yourself in the night clubs and discos all night long till morning in Bodrum which is also famous in terms of night life.

Gumbet which is famous with its night life is just 2 km to Bodrum. It has a long beach and the sea is shallow in here. Bitez Bay just near Gumbet is suitable for surfing. It is also a lovely town with its trees, green spaces, stone houses and paths. Its beach, shallow and mild sea water satisfies those who want to swim and have sun bath.

Ortakent having a 3500- year ld history was also settled during the Roman, Byzantine and Ottoman periods. Ottoman tower houses and wind mills can be visited. Akyarlar coast is very famous thanks to its tiny sand.

Turgutreis which has wonderful beaches for swimming and having sun bath is in the west side of Gumusluk (Myndos) and Yalikavak peninsula. Myndos was established by the Halicarnassos King Mauseolous in the 4th century B.C. One of the towers of Myndos Gate on the west side of the city walls could remain until today with its original height. Gumusluk having an academy as well is very attractive place thanks to its natural and quite atmosphere and the unique sunset. The rabbits on the Rabbit Island (Tavsan Adasi) and the natural landscape should be seen and then the Karakaya Village which is reached through a small path can be visited. You can easily have contact with the people living in the previous harbor of Gumusluk.

Turgutreis which is a modern holiday destination was named after the Great Turkish Sailor who is Turgut Reis. There is a monument for Turgut Reis in the town. The 20,5 km lon beach of Turguteis is ideal for trekking.

Yalıkavak which was the village of the sponge hunters previously is very attractive with its narrow streets having gardens where lots of hell flowers are available; and white washed houses. The region reminds us of a perfect portrait with its wind mills.

The coasts on which Torba, Turkbuku, Golkoy and Gundogan are located in the north of the region can be viewed both on the sand and on board. Small islets and mysterious caves can be visited. The old windmills where wheat is still ground and the hills covered with olive trees should be seen.

Torba having a beautiful harbor and which is a modern town is in 6 km north of Bodrum. It is a quite place. There is a monastery from the 4th century in Torba. The sea in Torba is very shallow and clean. Golkoy with its green spaces; Gundogan with its blue-flagged beaches; Turkbuku with its clean and dark blue sea are among the popular holiday destinations thanks to their accommodation facilities on the coastal line and small bays. After a half an hour sea voyage you can have the chance to swim in the Karaada caves where there is thermal spring water rich in minerals and you can have mud bath there.

The most beautiful models of housing architecture in Mugla are in Ula. All sides of the one-storied houses are glorious. Wood works of the houses having gardens are carefully performed. There are also two-storied houses peculiar to Mugla in Ula.

The clean and deep sea water of Gokova Gulf in the south coast of Bodrum peninsula reflects the different degrees of blue from the darkest blue to turquoise. The coastal line of Gokova is covered with forests. The houses are built on the sides of the mountain at the entry to the Gulf in Gokova. There are high pines which provide calmness and shelter in the Gokova Park. The ancient city Idyma (Akyaka) in the northeast of Gokova has the necropolis (rock graves) and acropolis (castle) is the remainders since the ancient times. Silent bays covered with pine forests, mild winds, clean beaches, shallow sea, plain and two-storied houses with gardens are among the typical characteristics of Akyaka. There are the ruins of the ancient city Kedreai the city of Caria in the Sedir Island famous with the transparent sea, white and mythical sand on the beach just across Akyaka. The towers and city walls made of properly cut stones, agora, well-protected theatre, Apollo Temple and the church constructed on the temple later on are worth seeing on the island covered with olive trees. The other name of this island which can be called as unique place and which has a small but perfect beach and a excellent sea water is Kleopatra Island. It is cited that the sand on the island was taken from somewhere else for Kleopatra and Antonius. However, as the formation of the sand which has billions of mussel fossils which can be seen only by microscope is important and as the amount of sand is low it is under protection. Having sunbath and swimming in the clean water of the sea provide unbelievable pleasure. Boncuk Bay just after Sedir Island is ideal for diving. Blue Cruise between Bodrum and Marmaris will let you see the unique beauties of the bays covered with pine forests.