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[Antalya]


EAST OF ANTALYA      


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Belek


East of Antalya is famous for its golden sand beaches, broad and fertile alluviums. Belek, 40 km away from Antalya, is one of the most important points of tourism just like Kemer with its first class holiday villages, four or five star hotels and small or medium sized tourist facilities. Moreover, Belek has the advantage of being situated close to the airport. It is an ideal place for not only swimming and sunbathing but also with historical and natural places nearby.
Belek is also the leading golf center in Turkey. National Golf Club in Belek has a golf course that consists of 9 holes and Champions League Facility with 18 holes


Perge


The first ancient city that we come across at the east of Antalya is Perge, situated 18 km. east of Antalya. Built in 7 BC, Perge is close to Aksu stream and Yurtpınar village. After being built by Akalar, the city became one of the most important centers of Pampheylia and was ruled by Lydia, Persia, Roman Empire and Byzantine Empire successively. Since the city is far away from the seashore, it was able to protect itself from attacks of pirates and therefore could develop continuously. Most of the buildings in the city (Theater, Stadium, Roman Gate and Southern Turkish Bath) are remains of Roman period. Theater stage is decorated with relieves of Dionysus, the god of wine. Furthermore, there are parts that are covered with mosaic on the ground of city’s agora. In addition, two tower remnants belonging to Hellenistic period in 3 BC are still standing. There is also a monumental fountain in the city.


Serik


Situated 33 km away from Antalya, Serik has a history going back to 2 BC. Serik was opened to tourism with historical cities of Aspendos and Sillion and National Park of Köprulu Kanyon.
Hacı Hasan Aga mosque, built in 18th century in Boztepe Village is also among the historical heritage of Serik. In addition to this, antique cities of Pednelissos in Kozan Village, Kısık in Etler Village and Harius in Yumaklar Village are within the borders of Serik.
Zeytinlitas Cave, 15 km away from Serik district, is situated in Gökceler neighborhood. Although the cave seems to be small sized, it has all kinds of drop Stones inside. Apart from this, very small stalactites which are still being formed at the ceiling, contribute to its beauty. This cave has an advantage of easy transportation possibilities and closeness to other residential areas.
Weaving and handwork that belong to Yörukler close to Serik attract many tourists.


Sillion (Silyum)


Sillion city, that resisted against Alexander the Great, takes place in historical documents. It is one of the most important residential areas of Pampheylia. The city, built in 4 BC, is 12 km away from seashore and Asar Village is situated nearby. The structures that are located on a high hill between Aspendos and Perge are remnants of Hellenistic, Roman, Byzantine and Seljuq Empire. These historical structures are city walls, stadium, palace, Byzantine church remnants and a mosque belonging to Byzantine period. Moreover, in the city, there is an epigraph written in the language of Pampheylia.


Aspendos


Aspendos is an important historical place situated at the east of Antalya. Aspendos is 8 km away from Serik district and close to Belkız village. It has been understood from old coins in Aspendos that previous name of the city was Estwediiys. According to Strabon, the city was built by Argos in 7 BC and a group of people settled down in the city after Trojan War. After this, Aspendos began to be governed by Persia, Atik Delos and Roman Empire, just like other antique cities nearby. The city developed in II. and III. BC and took the name Primapolis in Vth century. After Arabian attacks, the city was ruled by Anatolian Seljuq Empire in 12th century. Aspendos, an important port city at the outlet of Köpru stream, became very rich through trade and was famous for its horses. The most famous structure in the city is its theater. This theater with its 15 thousand audience capacity is world famous and the soundest antique theater today. Architect of this theater is Zenon and it is situated at a right slope and has a perfect acoustic, By means of Stones from that area, audience and stage parts are put together in a harmonic way. Today, it is often used for various activities. Among these, International Aspendos Opera and Ballet Festival takes the first place.
Apart from its theater, an aqueduct and a fountain are also still standing in Aspendos. Furthermore, remnants such as agora, basilica, stoa, stadium, Turkish bath and gymnasium take place in Aspendos.
On the way to Aspendos, great centers of Turkish jewellery are also located here. Here, new designs of Turkish jewellery industry take place. Examples of Turkish jewellery industry are presented here. There is also a bridge from Seljuq period on the Köpru stream close to the main road.


Manavgat


Although establishment date of Manavgat district, famous for its waterfalls is not certainly known, antique cities of Side (Selimiye Village) and Selge (Altınkaya Village) within its borders are thought to be built in 6 BC. As from 1220, Manavgat was ruled by Seljuq Empire and as from 1472 by Ottoman Empire.
Waterfalls in Manavgat do not fall from high like Kursunlu and Duden waterfalls; on the contrary they falls with high speed from rocks forming white foams. There are teagardens and restaurants in order that people can relax. By a boat tour on Manavgat river, it is possible to explore the environment more closely.
The road to northeast of Antalya along the landscape reaches National Park of Köprulu Kanyon after Tasagil and Beskonak. This park, 92 km away from Antalya, has a very rich flora that consists of abundant forests. It enables many kinds of wild animals to survive. Köprulu Kanyon reaches Köpru stream after 14 kilometer. Sometimes, its depth reaches 100m. Oluk and Burgum bridges on Kocadere stream show the high level of Roman engineering. Oluk Bridge, situated in 2 BC, has a height of 27 meters. There are also fish restaurants at the rest places of the National Park. After National Park tour, antique city Selge or Dedegöl Mountains may be selected as the new tour route.
Selge is situated at the northeast of Zerk (Altınkaya) National Park. The city which can be reached after a twisted monutain road has a height of 950 meter. According to Strabon, it is one of the most important cities in Pisidia. As the remnants of the city, there are two temples that belong to Zeus and Artemis, agora, arena, theater, gymnasium and necropolis. Today, water resources in the antique city are still being used.


Side


Side is one of the most famous antique cities and holiday villages of Turkey. It is situated 75 km away from Antalya and at the southwest of Manavgat district. An ancient port, Side’s name means “pomegranate”. Today, antiques remnants, sand beaches, shopping centers and modern accommodation places in Side attract tourists to this beautiful seashore city. It is possible to find various types of Turkish hand work examples in bazaars of Side.
According to Strabon, Side was built by colonists of Kyme in 696 BC. However, researches show that this city goes back to earlier times. City was governed by Lydia as from 6 BC and Persia after that. Side was seized by Alexander the Great in 334 BC and has its heyday like other antique cities in 2 BC. Then, Romans began to rule and city became a part of Galatia state. Side decided on Christianity after 3 BC and was deserted because of Arabian attacks in 9th and 10th century.
Antique city of Side is located on a flat area. Today, remnants are theater, temple of Apollo, temple of Dionysus, and temple belonging to Men, agora, cisterns, gymnasium, necropolis and Roman bath. Most of the remains that stand still today are from Roman period. Roman bath is serving as an Archeological Museum.

Antique city of Seleukia looks towards Manavgat Plain. Agora, Turkish bath and temple are still standing today. 30 km north from Manavgat, there is antique city of Ettena.
Sorgun and Titreyengöl that take place at the east of Side are holiday centers that are famous for their pine trees and sand beaches. In addition, Kumköy and Colaklı, located at the east of Side are important holiday centers.
Kargıhan in Beydigin Villiage that belongs to Manavgat District was built in Seljuq Period. Many parts of the structure are stil standing.


Alanya


Alanya is an important holiday city with its broad sand beaches, touristic facilities and historical places. It has Taurus mountains in its north and Mediterranean in its south. Old Alanya, which is the kernel of today’s city, is located on the hill of a high peninsula. Alanya, famous for its natural sand beaches, is encircled with orange, tangerine and banana gardens.
As a result of researches in Kadrini cave, 12 km away from Alanya city center, it has been found that history of that district goes back to Upper Paleolitic Period. Alanya, whose oldest name is Coracesium, was called Kalonoros in Byzantine Period and Alaiyye in Seljuq Period. The district was given the name Alanya by Mustafa Kemal Ataturk in 1935. Coracesium was sometimes regarded to be in Pampheylia region and sometimes in Klikya region. Persians ruled the city in 4 BC and then it was ruled by Byzantine Empire. Defence of the city became very important during Arabian attack in 7 BC and therefore a fortress was built. I. Aleaddin Keykubat, emperor of Anatolian Seljuq Empire, seized the fortress in 1221 and built a palace inside. Seljuq Empire gave great importance to the city and announced Alanya as the second capital and used it as their center in winter. After Seljuq Empire had been subverted, city was ruled by Karamanoglu Sultanate as from 1300. Alanya was sold by Karamanogulları to Memluk Sultan in return for five thousand piece of gold and then became a part of Ottoman Empire in Fatih Sultan Mehmet period in 1471. Then, Alanya became a part of Cyprus with Tarsus in 1571. In 1864, it became a part of Konya province. Then, it became a part of Antalya in 1868 and then a province in 1871.
Previously, Alanya developed in fortress region, which still keeps its historical structure and most of the settlements are in eatern region due to its protection from wind. Then, residental places, expanding to the shore and plains, developed thanks to toruism and Alanya became the biggest district of Antalya.
Most important historical structures in the center of Alanya belong to Anatolian Seljuq Empire Period. I. Aleaddin Keykubat, Seljuq Sultan, gave great importance to the development and architecture of the city and therefore the city had been called Alaiyye for many years. After Sultan seized Alanya fortress, he rebuilt the fortress in 1225. Walls of the fortress that surround the fortress with zigzag lines are 6,5 km long. The walls go through Ehmedek, İckale, Adam Atacagı, Cilvarda, Burnu Ustu, Arap Evliyası Burcu and Esat Burcu. Then they go forward to Tophane and Tersane and finish in Kızılkule. There are totaly 83 towers and 140 battlements in internal and external towers. Internal tower has a great landscape. There is still residence in Alanya castle, which involves Aya Yorgi Church, Kanuni Sultan Suleyman Mosque, Aksabe Sultan Mausoleum, Seljuq Bath, Arasta, Sitti Zeynep Mausoleum, Bedesten and Sultan Alaeddin Palace. Weaving of silk and cotton can be found on wooden benches in front of the wooden and reinforced-concrete houses. Moreover, decorated mugs are colored in different styles and authentic meal service is given in small gardens. Furthermore, there are restaurants and cafeterias on slopes of fortress. While fortress is open to vehicles, it can be reached on foot in approximately one hour.
Kızıl Kule Fortress, which took its name from its red stones, is located at port. Indeed, this port is the gathering point of fortress walls. This fortress was built by I. Aleaddin Keykubat in order to protect the port with shipyard nearby. According to resources, fortress with octagon was built by Halepli Kettuni Rehaoglu Ebu Ali in 1226. Fortress, which is partly made up of stone and brick, has 5 floors. On the first floor, there is Ethnography Museum today. Regional textile products, benches, Turcoman tents as well as cooking outfits, arms and weights are displayed in this museum. This historical structure also hosts various concerts, exhibitions and other cultural and art activities.
Alanya shipyard, built close to Kızıl Kule Fortress in 1227, is important due to the fact that it is the first shipyard of Seljuq Period. Since I. Aleaddin Keykubat built Alanya shipyard after Sinop shipyard, he was awarded the title “Sultan of the two seas.” The biggest ships of this period were built in this shipyard with vaults and five eyes of the sea front. Adjacent to the structure, a 10 meter Tophane Binası was built in 1227 in order to protect the shipyard.
Northern side of Alanya Fortress was built above an old Byzantine fortress in order to defend against land attacks of Ehmedek Kalesi (Middle Fortress). There are ship descriptions from Seljuq Period on the fortress walls.
Kale Mosque was built on the west side of Alanya in 1231. Mosque that stands outside internal fortress was rebuilt in Kanuni Period between 1530 – 1566 years. Therefore, this mosque is called Suleymaniye Mosque or Sultan Suleyman Mosque. It has a square plan and a single dome. Gate and windows of the mosque are very good examples of Ottoman wood workmanship.
Aksebe Sultan Small Mosque inside the fortress was built by Seljuq Commander Aksebe Sultan in 1230 and it has a square plan and two sections. One of the rooms is Aksebe Sultan Tomb. There is Sitti Zeynep Tomb from Seljuq or Ottoman Period on a big rock on the way to fortress. Another Seljuq structure is Andızlı (Emir Bedreddin) Mosque which was built by Emir Bedreddin. This structure reflects the architecture of Seljuq Period. Bedesten in the fortress is thought to be built in Karamanogulları Period. Bedesten, made up of hewn stone, has a rectangular plan, twenty six rooms and a very big courtyard. This structure is thought to be used as a bazaar or large commercial building a long time ago. Today, it is a tourist facility that involves a hotel, restaurant and cafeteria. Courtyards has a wonderful landscape.
Aya Yorgi Church that dates back to Byzantine Period in 6th century, is found in Alanya Fortress. This small church with a dome is very important in that it is the only example that reflects the period before Turk-Islam. This church is one of the internal Fortress Museum structure.
It is possible to find historical works from Antique Period, Anatolian Seljuq Period and Ottoman Empire around Alanya. Large commercial buildings are priorities among these structures. For example, Sarapsa Hanı, 13 km east of Alanya, was built in Sultan I. Gıyaseddin Keyhusrev Period between 1236 – 1246 years. Sarapsa Hanı is located on the way of Silk Road. Alara Hanı (1231) by Alara stream is also an important caravansary. This structure involves a Turkish bath, small mosque and fountain as well as rooms for travelers. Apart from restaurants inside the building, it is possible to eat in restaurants by Alara stream or swim. In addition to this, ruined Kargı Hanı, on the west side of Alanya, is thought to be used as caravansary. Another structure on Silk Road is Alara Fortress. This fortress, built in Alaeddin Keykubat Period in 1232, is located 37 km west of Alanya. This fortress on Silk Road was built in order to ensure the safety of travelers in Alara Hanı. This fortress on a hill is magnificent. In order to enjoy the landscape in Alanya Castle, it is a must to climb for a long time.
Hıdrellez Church, located within the borders of Hacı Mehmetli Village 10 km away from Alanya, is a 19th century structure. This church with a rectangular plan is open to act of worship.
Museums must also be included in the sightseeing list of Alanya. These are four museums, namely Archeological Museum, Ethnography Museum, Internal Fortress Museum and Ataturk Museum. Alanya Archeological Museum with its works from Anatolian Civilizations Museum developed with findings from caves in the region. It is possible to find an ethnography section and many examples of art from Greek, Roman, Byzantine, Anatolian Seljuq and Ottoman Period. The most important work of art in this museum is Heracles Sculpture.
Ethnography Museum is on the first floor of Kızıl Kule (Red Tower). Internal Fortress Museum involves places in Alanya Internal Fortress. Aya Yorgi Church which dates back to 6th century attracts attention with its cistern and Seyirlik section. There are frescos on the church walls.
House of Mustafa Kemal Ataturk, founder of Republic of Turkey, was turned into a museum in 1987. Entrance floor of this structure, which is an example of a 19th century Turkish House, is full with special lines of Ataturk and the upper floor is furnished in a typical Alanya house style.
Residences on the east and west side of Alanya are generally cities of Pampheylia and Klikya Region. In many of them, excavation works are still going on. These are Colybrassus, Hamaxia, Syedra antique cities. Colybrassus (Ayasofya) is a Roman city 30 km on the northwest of Alanya. Today, it is possible to see an Ion style temple, sarcophagus and monumental graves. Hamaxia, 12 km away from Alanya is one of the historical Pampheylia residences. It has hosted many civilizations throughout the history. Pool and fountain are interesting among city remains. Alanya city landscape can be seen from the sea slope of the city.
History of Syedra city goes back to 7 BC and retained its power till 13th century. It was built on a hill which is a border to Kargacı and Seki Villages, 20 km east of Alanya. This city has its heyday in Roman Period in 2. and 3. BC. The city is surrounded with walls. Monumental entrance gate, church remains, cistern, street with columns, temple with its mosaics near the street, theater, acropolis and necropolis remnants attract the attention of visitors.
There is Leartis-Learti Ruins 25 km east of Alanya and just like any other antique residence, we have remains from Roman times today. Observation towers, agora, Odeon or theater, temples built in the name of Zeus, Apollo and Caesars, Turkish bath, necropolis and churches are some of the remnants.
Apart from its historical richness, Alanya has various kinds of natural beauties. Damlatas Cave is the symbol of city, which is situated on the west seaside of Dilaverde Burnu. Height of the cave is 15 m and its area is 200 square meter. This cave took its name from drops from stalactites. These stalactites are thought to be in 15 thousand years and the cave is thought to be useful for diseases such as asthma and bronchitis. The caves on the South and West fronts of Dilaverde Burnu complement tourist identity of Alanya. Asıklar ve Fosforlu Caves along the shore form a wonderful atmosphere with light and sea water. It is possible to reach caves by boat. This tour can be made interesting and useful by visiting Cleopatra Beach, too.
Slopes of Taurus are promenades of Alanya. It is very enjoyable from here to watch Alanya Fortress, city’s landscape and Alanya Plain. Moreover, Dim Stream 15 km away from Alanya and Ulas Rest Park are ideal places for picnicking and enjoying nature. In addition to this, Avsallar sandy beach and other sandy beaches between Alanya and Gazipasa really charm people who want to enjoy sea and sunlight.
In Alanya district where tourism has developed extremely giftware such as jewellery, handwork, leather products, clothes are sold in shop around the port. In addition, decorated and colored plates, which are symbols of the region and handmade shawl and towels, are sold. International Folk Dances Festival, which is organized in August each year, International Beach Volleyball Tournament in every June and Triatlon Competition in every October contribute greatly to the city’s atmosphere.
Gazipasa District, which played an important role in Turkish Liberation War and took its name from Ataturk, is 44 km away from Alanya. There are Selinus, Iotape, Nephelis, Adanda- Lamus, Antıocheıa Ad Cragum antique cities around Gazipasa. After Klikia, Greek, Roman and Byzantine Periods, Alanya became a part of Anatolian Seljuq Empire and its name was changed into Selinti after a flood. Selinti city, which was ruled by Karamanogulları in Sultanate times, became a part of Ottoman Empire in Fatih Sultan Mehmet period (1472).
Selinus, which was situated on the southeast of Gazipasa sand beach and Hacımusa stream, was an important antique city in Klikya region. Its history goes back to 6th century. Its fortress, walls, towers, churches and cistern is still standing in a good condition today. Other structures of the city such as Turkish bath, aqueducts and necropolis are located on the slope of the hill. Agora of the city is situated on Gazipasa shore. Monumental hunting seat from Anatolian Seljuq Empire is furnished with red zigzag decoration. Again monumental graves in necropolis are best examples of corpse burying tradition in Klikya region.
Iotape (Aytap) is an antique port city. Fortress of the city on a high hill is famous for its landscape. This antique city took its name from Iotape who is wife of Kommagene King IV. Antiochus. She lived between 38-72 years. Today, street, Turkish bath, necropolis and acropolis are still standing. It is also possible to swim in the small bay full of port remains in the Ören region.
Today, city walls, Odeon, water system, limestone oven and necropolis from Middle Age are still standing in Nephelis, a city in typical mountainous Klikya region.
Remains of Antıocheia Ad Cragum (Guney Köyu) are scattered; but have a very interesting landscape. The city took its name from Kommagene King IV. Antiochus. A fortress from Roman and Byzantine period, church, agora, necropolis area and monumental graves are worth visiting.

Adanda-Lamus is 2 km north of Adanda Village. This city, built on two high hills, was surrounded with walls in the middle of 3rd century and entrance gate of the city is protected with tower. Moreover, there are remains such as two temples that were built in the name of Vespasianus and Titus from Roman Empire, agora and fountain. Rooms and big sized sarcophagus in the necropolis area are interesting.

Turkish houses in Gazipasa, Hasdere are worth visiting. Yalan Dunya Cave was opened to visitors in 1994. This cave is considerably large and high in comparison to other examples. Stalactites and Sralagmites inside the cave are made up of shades of scarlet fever and white.