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[Traditions and Customs]


TURKISH BATH      


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TURKISH BATH

It is known that the independent bath structures had developed after Roman era. It is stated that there were 170 baths in Rome in 33 BC. The Romans had called baths “thermea” This word has entered into Turkish language changing very little in thousands of years. Spas are still being called thermal in some regions. The Turks give special importance to the baths for they have accepted the Islamic religion and complied with its rules for cleanliness. There were 168 great bazaar baths in Istanbul only, in 7th C. as well as each of the Turkish people had private baths in their houses in accordance with the orders of Islam.

The word hamam comes from the Arabic word of “hamm” and it means “heating, being hot” The word “hamam” is used frequently even today. However it is called as “sicak” or “isicak” (hot) in some places of Anatolia.


Turkish baths consist of three sections


Turkish baths consist of three sections;

Sogukluk (Tepidarium): cool room for changing
Sıcaklık (Caldarium): the hot room, the bath (Hamam)
Isitma (Boiler room): Kulhan

Sogukluk (Tepidarium)


Sogukluk (Tepidarium): Cool room for changing

The Turks call this section “glassed changing cubicle” (camekan). There is a divan with no back or ends along the walls. Small niches are placed under the divan in order for putting the shoes and bath clothes (nalin) in. There is a marble covered pool with a water jet in the tepidarium which is the first section of the bath. In general the tepidarium section isn’t heated.

Sıcaklık (Caldarium)


Sıcaklık (Caldarium): the hot room, the bath (Hamam)

The section going passing through the tepidarium is called the caldarium. This section also has some parts in itself; marble basin (kurna), partially enclosed bathing cubicle (halvet), heated marble slab to lie on for sweating (gobek tası-belly stone. The marble basins generally surround the heated marble slab and everyone entered the bath washes him/herself at the marble basin. The people are washed on their own in partially enclosed bathing cubicles. The heated marble slab in the center of the bath on which the people lie down is for sweating.

There are domes and small windows above the heated marble slab and it can be called elephant eye. Here is the hottest section of the building as it is close to the boiler room. The canals passing underneath the floor and the walls of interior bath and tepidarium heat this section, too.

Isitma (boiler room)


Isitma (boiler room): Kulhan

Here is the section in which the fire is lighted, and it is situated underneath the bath. The flames and smoke rising from the fire come out of a chimney called tuteklik passing through the special canals under the marble floor. The flames and smoke rising from the firewoods firing in the stove in the boiler room go under the heated marble slab. It is named as hell for the part under here become too hot.


ANATOLIAN TURKISH BATHS


ANATOLIAN TURKISH BATHS

The Turkish baths gained importance especially in the era of Ottoman Empire had been generally building in the form of centrally-planned single or double type baths. The baths built inside of the complex of buildings adjacent to the mosque were frequently encountered as well as the ones built independently. It is estimated that many Turkish baths remained standing even today were built in order to derive income for charitable institutions, and especially for mosques

The experts notify that the first samples of Turkish era baths of Anatolia were encountered in Southeast Anatolia Region and that Maristan Bath in Mardin is the oldest historical bath in Anatolia.

The very few of the baths belong to Anatolian Seljuks remained standing now. It is known that Kokluk Bath in Kayseri which is a structure of Danisments was restored in 1210. A lot of small sized baths had been built in Anatolian grounds in the era of principalities.


TOPKAPI PALACE AND TURKISH BATH


TOPKAPI PALACE AND TURKISH BATH:

There were 8 baths in Harem of Topkapi Palace that experienced the most brilliant era in Ottoman Empire.

Hunkar and Valide (Sultan and Mother of Sultan) Bath


Hunkar and Valide (Sultan and Mother of Sultan) Bath

The bath in Kulhani Valide Tasligi (courtyard paved with stone) was built by Mimar Sinan and the power of classical Ottoman richness and art were represented by Hunkar Baths and Hunkar Halls. The property in Topkapi Palace Bath which draws the attention is metal cage in Hunkar and Valide Bath. The padishah came to the bath entering into this cage in order to take bath and lock from inside against any attack

Gozdeler (Favorites) Bath


Gozdeler (Favorites) Bath

It is built in the form of two vaulted rooms including hot and cool sections in an upper department reserved for favorites

Cariyeler (Female Slaves) Bath


Cariyeler (Female Slaves) Bath

It is a general bath in Cariyeler Taşlığı (courtyard paved with stone) and it is illuminated amply by the round glass used in the windows of the dome

Cariyeler (Female Slaves) Hospital Bath


Cariyeler (Female Slaves) Hospital Bath

The walls of this bath consisting three sections and three marble basins in caldarium were adorned with fresco remains of late ages.

Murat III Bath


Murat III Bath

One of the doors of the bath at Murat III hall opens into the room of Veliaht (heir to the throne).

Kızlar Agası (lord of the girls) Bath


Kızlar Agası (lord of the girls) Bath

It is situated at the right side of the way going down to Meskhane and its dome is adorned with vaults. The built-in marble pool and the ceramic tiles on the walls draw attention.

Karaagalar Bath


Karaagalar Bath

The bath situated in Darussaade Agaligi room is very interesting with its adorned three sections and ceramic tiles.


Baths in Istanbul


Baths in Istanbul

168 big baths and small baths as much again were present once in Istanbul. Baths were also situated in large wooden houses and mansions. It is supposed to be that there are about ten thousand baths of this kind. Even today, there are open baths drawing attention of the tourists

Cemberlitas Bath


Cemberlitas Bath:

As it will be understood from its name this bath is situated in Cemberlitas square. This bath which was made by Nurbanu Sultan in order to derive income for Atik Valide Sultan Complex (kulliye) in Uskudar in 1584 is a work of art of Mimar Sinan. It serves as a double-bath today.
Tel: +90.212.520 18 50/ www.cemberlitashamami.com.tr

Cagaloglu Bath


Cagaloglu Bath:

it is situated in Sultanahmet and liked so much by tourists. It was built by order of Mahmut I in order to derive income for Hagia Sofia Mosque in 1741. The plans of the bath were drown by chief architect Suleyman Aga, but it was completed by Abdullah Aga. It still serves as a double-bath today.
Tel: +90.212.522 24 24/ www.cagalogluhamami.com.tr

Suleymaniye Bath


Suleymaniye Bath:

It was built together with Suleymaniye Mosque which Mimar Sinan called “my work of art as a master builder” and its complex in 1557. The bath situated in Beyazıt was opened to tourism in 2001.
Tel: +90.212.520 34 10/ www.suleymaniyehamami.com.tr

Galatasaray Bath


Galatasaray Bath:

It was made while Galata Palace Society of Page-boys Barracks-School was rebuilding in order to build Galatasaray High School in 1715. A section was added for women in 1965. The bath situated in Beyoglu on Istiklal Avenue serves for both women and men.
Tel: +90.212.252 42 42

Big Bath


Big Bath:

It was built by Mimar Sinan together with the mosque in close proximity of the bath in 1533. There is a swimming pool in the men’s section. The bath situated in Kasımpasha still serves as a double-bath today.
Tel: +90.212.253 42 29

Aga Hamamı


Aga Hamamı:

It was made by Ismail Aga from Malatya who is the larder lord of Ahmet in 1610. The double-type Aga Bath in Uskudar serves for both women and men today.
Tel: +90.216.333 38 27

Baths of Mimar Sinan


Baths of Mimar Sinan:

Sixteen of Mimar Sinan structured baths are situated in the center of Istanbul. There are several palace baths made by Mimar Sinan. Cinili Bath, Aga Bath, Sinanpasha Bath are the first examples to them. Hagia Sofia Bath, Cinili Bath, Cemberlitas Bath, Ortakoy Bath, Kılıc Ali Pasha Bath, Suleymaniye and Beyazit Baths made by Mimar Sinan are the structures with big domes.


The other big baths in Turkey


The other big baths in Turkey

BURSA- Yesil (Green) Bath


BURSA- Yesil (Green) Bath:

It was made by Turbedar Kose Ali Pasha in order to derive income for Yesil Medresseh in the era of Fatih. The bath near Yesil Turbeh is still being run today

YALOVA- Kursunlu Bath


YALOVA- Kursunlu Bath:

The bath made by the Byzantium emperor Justinianus in 16th C. have sank into the ground with time. It was restored by Abdulhamit II who was the padishah of that era in 1900. The bath still serves today.

SIVAS- Kursunlu Bath


SIVAS- Kursunlu Bath:

It is the biggest bath of Sivas. It was made by Behram Pasha in 1576. It is a double-bath displaying all the characteristics of classical Ottoman bath architecture

SAMSUN- Double-Bath


SAMSUN- Double-Bath:

It was made by Koprulu Mehmet Pasha’s wife Ayse Hatun in 1660. The changing section has a dome and a fountain. It is a double-bath and both of them resembles to each other. It is still used today; one for men and the other one for women.

IZNIK- Ismail Bey Bath


IZNIK- Ismail Bey Bath:

It is situated in Iznik. It was made by Ismail Bey who was one of the Iznik Gentlemen between 14-15th Cs. It is known with its dome architecture.

EDIRNE- Sokollu Mehmet Pasha Bath


EDIRNE- Sokollu Mehmet Pasha Bath:

Sokollu Mehmet Pasha had Mimar Sinan made it in Edirne in 1568. It was planned as a double-bath. Its income was transferred to the Mosque with three balconies

KIRKLARELI- Hizirbey Bath


KIRKLARELI- Hizirbey Bath:

It is situated on Cumhuriyet Square in the center of Kirklareli. It was made by Kose Mihalzade Hizirbey and restored by Hagia Huseyin Aga in 1683. The bath still serves today. The workmanship of its dome lanterns is interesting. The bath was made together with the arasta (shops of the same trade built in a row) next to it

AKSARAY- Pasha Bath


AKSARAY- Pasha Bath:

It situated next to Zinciriye Madrasah is a typical Ottoman work of art. It was made by Haci Ali Pasha who was the Minister of War of Abdulhamit II. It has section both for women and men. The four domed bath was made of stone.

ANKARA- Old Bath


ANKARA- Old Bath:

Old Bath is in a ruined situation. The changing section had been completely collapsed. But, the tepidarium and caldarium including the kulhan (boiler room) were remained standing. It is estimated that the structure belongs to 15th C.

ANKARA- Karacabey Bath


ANKARA- Karacabey Bath:

The bath on Talat Pasha Boulevard was made in 1444. It was built as a double-bath. The entire structure forms a big rectangle resembling a square.

IZMIR- Luxurious Bath


IZMIR- Luxurious Bath:

It is also known as Kadhi Bath. The bath which is supposed to be made in 16th C. is the first of the Ottoman works of art. It was built as double-bath type and the bath is continuing its function even today.

IZMIR- Basmane Bath


IZMIR- Basmane Bath:

It is an Ottoman work of art that belongs to 17th C. There is a pool in the middle of the bath covered with a dome. The bath is continuing its function even today.

MERSIN- Sahmeran Bath


MERSIN- Sahmeran Bath:

It was established on the foundation of a bath left from Roman Era by Ramazanogullari. It is a typical Turkish bath in respect to the architecture. Its name comes from the story telling that the famous legend Sahmeran was killed in this bath.

NEVSEHIR- Damat Ibrahim Pasha Complex (kulliye) Bath


NEVSEHIR- Damat Ibrahim Pasha Complex (kulliye) Bath:

It was made of hewn stone in 1726-1727. It is situated at the northern of the complex (kulliye). It is a structure that is used today.

ARTVIN- City Bath


ARTVIN- City Bath:

It is 18th C. work of art belonging to Ottoman Empire. The bath still serves in Carsi Quarter of Artvin.

Kilis Baths


Kilis Baths:

The baths have an important place in the authentic culture of Kilis. This culture had begun with Turkish Memluks who had had control over Kilis for 266 years.

Old Bath


Old Bath:

This bath was neglected like many works of art at the beginning of the collapse period of Ottoman Empire. The bath which had a high value of architecture was built on a sloping area. The rain waters flowing violently on the narrow streets of Kilis had completely spread over the bath filling it with stones, sand and dirt. As the building was revealed afterwards it was named as “Old Bath”. The gate of the bath is an example of Ottoman masterpieces.

Hasanbey Bath


Hasanbey Bath:

The bath situated in Caylak Quarter is also called “Pit Bath” because it is below the road level. The bath is descended down via stairs with nine steps. A large, deep dome taking light from the top covers the changing section. The bath was made by Hasan Bey who was the officer of Kilis.

Koca Bath


Koca Bath:

It is also called Hodja Bath. A single, large dome covers the changing section of the bath. There are four windows on the slope of the dome, and one at the top. The fountain in the middle was made afterwards. The bath has a heated marble platform (gobektasi) and three open, four closed bathing cubicles (halvet).

Pasha Bath


Pasha Bath:

The bath is situated in the eastern side of the group of structures consisting of a mosque, a madrasah, a turbeh, a palace, a caravansary and a khan. The front side of the bath was covered completely with yellow and black stones. There are three windows opening to the tepidarium of the bath at the right side of the entrance gate. The fact that fifty yellow and black stones extending to the right and left from the tops of the windows telescoped each other increases the beauty of the scenery. It was made by Emir Canbolad in 1560, five years after Old Bath was built.

Tuglu (Toglu) Bath


Tuglu (Toglu) Bath:

the bath is situated in Seyhler Quarter. The date 1200 was carved between the lines of the legend with the marble stones on the

Old Bath


Old Bath:

This bath was neglected like many works of art at the beginning of the collapse period of Ottoman Empire. The bath which had a high value of architecture was built on a sloping area. The rain waters flowing violently on the narrow streets of Kilis had completely spread over the bath filling it with stones, sand and dirt. As the building was revealed afterwards it was named as “Old Bath”. The gate of the bath is an example of Ottoman masterpieces.

Hasanbey Bath


Hasanbey Bath:

The bath situated in Caylak Quarter is also called “Pit Bath” because it is below the road level. The bath is descended down via stairs with nine steps. A large, deep dome taking light from the top covers the changing section. The bath was made by Hasan Bey who was the officer of Kilis.

Koca Bath


Koca Bath:

It is also called Hodja Bath. A single, large dome covers the changing section of the bath. There are four windows on the slope of the dome, and one at the top. The fountain in the middle was made afterwards. The bath has a heated marble platform (gobektasi) and three open, four closed bathing cubicles (halvet).

Pasha Bath


Pasha Bath:

The bath is situated in the eastern side of the group of structures consisting of a mosque, a madrasah, a turbeh, a palace, a caravansary and a khan. The front side of the bath was covered completely with yellow and black stones. There are three windows opening to the tepidarium of the bath at the right side of the entrance gate. The fact that fifty yellow and black stones extending to the right and left from the tops of the windows telescoped each other increases the beauty of the scenery. It was made by Emir Canbolad in 1560, five years after Old Bath was built.

Tuglu (Toglu) Bath


Tuglu (Toglu) Bath:

the bath is situated in Seyhler Quarter. The date 1200 was carved between the lines of the legend with the marble stones on the


Recomendations


Recomendations

What to take with?


What to take with?

Pestamal, nalin, lenger (shallow copper bowl), fibrous sponges made of date-palm root were indispensable items of Turkish baths. However, today, you can meet all kinds of your needs in the baths with a wage differential. But still you want to use your own things you should absolutely take a towel, a bottle of shampoo and hair cream, soap, takunya or slippers, a woven soap cloth, a copper bowl and a bath cloth made of bristle with you.

What to pay attention to in baths?


What to pay attention to in baths?

You must be careful not to slide on the marble floor. You must take pains to decide on the slippers or takunyas which won’t slide. People who have cardiovascular diseases and suffer from high blood pressure must consult with a doctor before they go in the Turkish bath. The palpitation of heart and the circulation of the blood speed up because of the high temperature and humidity inside the bath. The temperature of the bath changes between 35 and 45 according to the season. The bath’s atmosphere has drawbacks for the people who have open wounds and migraine. You must ensure your body temperature has slowly risen for 15 minutes in the warm section before you enter or go out of the hot section. So you won’t be ill being cold or exposed to sudden heat. Natirs in the women’s section and tellaks in the men’s section make the processes of massaging and rubbing with a kese as required in the bath. You can have them made the both processes at once. The tradition of baksheesh in Turkish baths has gone on for centuries. In general you are free on how much you will stay in the bath, but there can be a time limitation in some baths.


GLOSSARY


GLOSSARY

BATHING CURES


BATHING CURES:

These cures are carried out with the mineral waters whose temperatures are close to the body temperature (35-37ºC). If the body is completely inserted into the water gathered in a bathtube or pool it is called “whole bathing”; if the body is inserted into the water up to the waist it is called “half bathing”.

STEAMING CURES


STEAMING CURES:

The steam spurting out from the ceiling or floor is breathed in. The steam is useful for the outer skin.

MINERAL SPRING CURES


MINERAL SPRING CURES:

Some mineral waters can be drunk because of the property of the minerals in it.

MUD CURES


MUD CURES:

The ground of the spa which had become mud remaining continuously in wet has saturated with metallic salt. When you lie down in this mud or smear it over your body the chemical substances penetrate into the tissues through the pores.

MINERAL WATER


MINERAL WATER:

It falls under the definition of geothermal energy. These waters some of which is under 20°C contain dissolved mineral substances over 1liter-1 gram or scarce elements. Mineral waters can be called with the Turkish words such as icme, icmece, cermik, ilica, kaplica, kaynarca, girme, ilisu, terme, kudret (strength) bath, dag (mountain) bath.

HEATED MARBLE PLATFORM (GOBEKTASI)


HEATED MARBLE PLATFORM (GOBEKTASI):

It is a large, marble basin which is heated from under in order to lie down on for sweating in the baths.

MARBLE BATH PLATFORM (HAMAM TASI)


MARBLE BATH PLATFORM (HAMAM TASI):

A shallow bowl which is of use to take water from the tap or marble basin and to pour the water. It is generally made of silver or brass.

KILDANLIK


KILDANLIK:

A brass box with a cover, which was used to carry the soft and oily clay or soap in old days.

ROOF LANTERN/LANTERN OF LIGHT


ROOF LANTERN/LANTERN OF LIGHT:

Circle or polygon windows which are situated on the top point of the roof or dome and have the light go in. They were frequently used in Ottoman bath architecture. It is called “Dome Lantern”, too.

ELEPHANT EYE (FIL GOZU)


ELEPHANT EYE (FIL GOZU):

Round glass used to cover the holes bored on the dome in order to take light in Ottoman baths

KESE


KESE:

A bath glove weaved with bristle or hemp plant.

TELLAK


TELLAK:

Male attendant who bathes the customers of a Turkish bath massaging and rubbing them with a kese.

NATIR


NATIR:

Female attendant who bathes the customers of a Turkish bath massaging and rubbing them with a kese.

MARBLE BASIN (KURNA)


MARBLE BASIN (KURNA):

A marble or stone basin in which waters are gathered under the tap

CLOG (TAKUNYA/NALIN)


CLOG (TAKUNYA/NALIN):

A kind of slipper consisting of a thick, high wooden sole with a strap across the toe. It is used not to slip on the watery floors as in baths.

PESTAMAL


PESTAMAL:

It is a cotton cloth used for being covered or dried in bath. The men also use it wrapping around their wrest.

HALVET


partially enclosed bathing cubicle (HALVET) :

very hot, small rooms in baths.

ILICA


SPA (ILICA):

Bath, spa, thermal spring whose waters comes from underground

KUDRET BATH


KUDRET BATH:

The name of spas in local

CERMIK


CERMIK:

Hot spring, spa.

TEPIDARIUM (SOGUKLUK)


TEPIDARIUM (SOGUKLUK):

The section between the changing place and the bathing place, which is heated less.