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[Folk Arts] [Auditory folk arts]


FOLK LITERATURE      


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Folk literature is partially composed of folk stories, folksongs, mani, proverbs, riddles (bilmeceler), tekerlemeler, Village plays (seyirlik koy oyunlari) whose composers are unknown or indefinite.

Tekke literature (13.-16. century) is the form of folk literature with religious content. Tekke poems were read with special compositions such as hymns, and nefes (liturgical hymns). Though the language used in Tekke literature sometimes contained Arabian and Persian words, it could be easily understood. Quatrain (dortluk) verse unit and syllable meter (hece olcusu) were used at all. The most important representatives of this literature are Yunus Emre, Nesimi, Kaygusuz Abdal, Haci Bayram Veli, Hatayi, and Pir Sultan Abdal.

Ashik literature which constitutes another field of Folk literature includes the period from 16. century to the present. Folk (public) ozans who were also called as Ashik generally traveled around Anatolia with their saz (a stringed instrument) and formed this tradition in this way. Karacaoglan, Ashik Omer, Gevheri, Dertli, Dadaloglu, Erzurumlu Emrah, Bayburtlu Zihni, Ruhsati, Summani, Ashik Veysel, Ali Izzet Ozkan are among these ashiks.

Manis, folk songs, agits (lament), ninni (lullaby), bilmece (riddle), and tekerlemeler (a playful form in folk narrative) are listed among Anonymous Folk Literature.

Maniler are anonymous poems which are nearly about all kinds of subject and formed of quatrains with seven syllables.

“Agitlar” (laments) give utterance to the feelings of sorrow after an affliction, primarily death.

Lullabies (ninni) are the expressions in verse form which are usually formed of quatrains and sung with a melody by adding certain pattern of words at the end of each line about feelings, thoughts, beliefs, hopes and imaginations, happiness and sorrows while putting children to sleep.

Riddles (bilmeceler) are a kind of game which directs the audience to guess the name of a thing by telling its properties without saying its name. We can find the oldest riddle texts in Turkish Literature in Codex Cumanicus which was written Khuman language in 1303. There are 46 riddles in Codex.

Tekerlemeler are the routine patterns of words in verse style through which the feelings, states and imaginations are expressed via exaggeration, strangeness, opposition, simulation, humour, short definition or connotations making use of meter and rhyme.

Proverbs are the pattern of sentences which completely and certainly explain a thought, an advice with few words and believed to be left over by ancestors.

Idioms are the pattern of expressions which state a completely new meaning by moving away from the exact meanings.

Mysteries are one of the products of Folk Literature. It is one of the anonymous literature types which is created by attributing extra ordinary characteristics to real or unreal creatures, places, and events and direct the individual’s personal-social life; and also what is told is believed to be certainly real.

Tales are the short narrations which are the figment of imagination, non-related to the reality and do not claim to be real. This is analyzed under three parts as; animal tales, extra ordinary tales, and Realistic Tales.

Folk stories are in two forms as short and long stories. These are the stories which are developed around a single event, simple in structure, and short stories or lengthened by adding adversities to each other to form a rather long one.

The stories are told in weeding ceremonies, long winter evenings in village houses, and at Ramadan evenings in coffee houses in cities or towns. In some local places, there are popular story tellers and ashiks who adopted this as an art craft upon a long apprenticeship period. Today there are still places where folk story telling is alive in Turkiye.