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[Folk Arts] [Plastic folk arts]


YARN WORK       


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Yarn is obtained by bending or uniting fibers. Yarn is the main material of textile and embroidery. Different textile types are formed with the yarns obtained from wool, cotton and silk. In textile, cloth is formed by passing horizontal yarns called straps between parallel vertical yarns called warps. Bezayagi, dimi and satin are basic textile types; as there are many derivatives of these types, there are special textile types like carpet, rug, cicim, zili and kolon.

Textile was one of the requirements of the life for the nomadic Turks living in Central Asia. Thick textile suiting the cold weather conditions, carpets and rugs are the samples of their textile. The carpet found in Pazirik Cairn which dates back to 5th -3rd centuries BC, is the oldest carpet of the world and the fact that its weaving has Turkish ties shows that textile was one of the main art branches of Turks. On the carpet, on which plant, animal and raider figures had been weaved in full detail, weaving density and the quality of the colors are very high. Again in the same district, various rug samples were found. In the periods when Turks were on Silk Road, it is observed that they were dominant silk textile. The silk cloth piece, which is kept in London Victoria and Albert Museum, of 11th century, shows how much the Seljuk silk textile had developed.

Many carpet pieces belonging to Anatolian Seljuk period of 11th – 14th centuries were found. Turks had carried their tradition of textile in Central Asia to Anatolia. It is understood that these carpets, which were again weaved with Turkish Tie, were huge and they are exhibited in Istanbul in the Museum of Turkish and Islamic Arts. Also, the silk cloth sample found in Lyon Musee de Tissus shows that in that period, quality silk textile had continued. Anatolia had always been a center for quality textile. In 14th century, while carpets with animal figures were weaved and sold to Europe on one hand, on the other hand famous traveler Ibni Battuta told that cotton clothing with golden embroidery had been weaved in Denizli.

It is seen that in Ottoman period, many quality cloth like broadcloth, velvet, scarf, satin, kemha, canfes, seraser were weaved and even gold and silver were turned into yarn and used in textile. The most beautiful samples of clothing of Ottoman period are exhibited in Topkapi Palace Museum. Also, sof in Ankara, cotton in Alexandria and Cyprus, colorful cloth in Diyarbakir and Malatya , several types of cotton cloth in Mardin, Musul and Bagdat, beledi textile in Tire, Bursa and Konya, flax and hemp in Kastamonu, Taskopru and in central western accommodations of Black Sea region were weaved. In early Ottoman period, the carpets weaved with Turkish Tie were being exported to Europe and they even illustrated in the paintings of European artists like Erken Hans Holbein and Lorenzo Lotto. In classical age, Usak carpets were very famous. It is understood that by time, skin was preferred for carpet production. Hereke Carpet Factory which was established in 19th century still continues production today.

The main carpet production centers in Anatolia were Usak, Milas, Konya Ladik, Manisa Gordes, Kula, Bergama, Canakkale, Balikesir, Antalya, Kirsehir Mucur, Konya Karaman, Kayseri Bunyan, Sivas and Isparta and it is seen that textile is still active in these regions. Beyond carpet, rugs, sumac,cicim, zili and carpana of normal textile types are weaved in nearly every region of Anatolia.

Also, with the help of several tools like needle, string, awl, embroidery hoop, embroidery is made with several techniques. Embroidery known as Antep work, perforation, cigerdeldi, wrap are made on white surface with the help of white string and needle. Embroidery known as straight needle, diagonal needle, Turkish work, color wrap, telkirma are classified as work with two similar surfaces. In the works like wrap, embroidery hoop work, suzeni, Chinese needle, herringbone and zerduz, sample is first fitted onto to the cloth and then with the help of the needle or awl, it is filled on embroidery hoop. In appliqué technique, the cloth is cut with respect to its pattern and then appliquéd onto another cloth. By using beads on embroidery and knit made with awl, bead work is made. Also there are several knit and lace techniques. Palace embroidery was generally made on satin or silk. In Istanbul embroidery, tulip, carnation, hyacinth, rose, spring flowers, pavilions were stylized. In Aegean region, generally fruits and geometric decorations were made with calculation method with white and red silk yarn. In Konya embroidery, Chinese needle, in Malatya diagonal needle, in Gaziantep Antep work, in Kahramanmaras dival techniques were used. With respect to the traditions, the bride has to prepare dower for marriage and great part of this dower is composed of knits and laces. This tradition makes public embroidery continue.