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[Auditory arts] [Auditory arts] [Classical Turkish Art Music]


INSTRUMENTS OF CLASSICAL TURKISH MUSIC      



In Classical Turkish Music, various instruments have been used in the course of its history. Nevertheless, almost in every period, the primary function of the instruments was to accompany the human voice. Whereas some of these instruments that formed part of Classical Turkish Music have had the chance to survive to today, varying and evolving within various interactions; others have been forgotten, having dropped out of use over time.


The main instruments used in Classical Turkish Music are divided into categories:

1.Stringed instruments:

These are instruments whose sound is obtained by the vibration of strings.
The instruments in this group are: Çeng, Santur, Sine-kemanı, Şehrud, Ud, Tanbur, Lavta, Kanun, Kemançe (Rebap), Kemençe, Kopuz, etc.

2.Wind instruments:

These are the instruments that produce their sound by the vibration of the air inside or in the vicinity of the instrument.
The instruments in this group are: Mıskal, Ney, Nefir etc.

3. Percussion covered with hide:

These are the instruments that produce their sound by the vibration of the hide. The instruments in this group are: Kudüm, Daire, Def, etc.

4.Self-resonating instruments:

These are the instruments that produce their sound by the action beating, hitting and shaking, and are generally made up of hard materials, and that produces sound by the vibration of the whole body.
The instruments in this group are: Zil, Çalpara (Çalpare), Şakşak (the spoon), etc.


The çeng


The çeng is an instrument that organology classifies as one of "the open harps". The open harps are divided into two categories: "the bow-harp" and " the cornered harp". The Çeng is within the second type.

The 'cornered' harp was used in Anatolia from ancient times. The last form of it was the Ottoman 'çengi'. After that the `cornered' harp dissappears from the historical scene. From a search of written sources, we know it was is a 17-24 string, cornered harp, where every string corresponded to a pitch; provided that the peg plate was parallel to the earth and the sound box was taken to the bottom, It was played with fingers of both hands and the strings were made of catgut or silk thread. Since it was tuned to have eight strings to an octave; when the makam was changed, some strings of the instrument needed to be tuned again.

The çeng, which was played by both men and women, was depicted, in most miniatures, as being used during with scholars and poets, rather than in scenes of entertainment. The Çend can be investigated mainly in two categories in respect of its size. The first of these was the "kucak çengi (the çeng of the lap)", which was small, and was played mostly in closed places; and the other was the "açık hava çeng (the open air çeng)" played using a belt tied to the belly of the musician. The former was played putting the peg plate on the left knee of the player and the latter was played tightening the longer leg of the instrument between the two legs of the instrumentalist.

The sound box of the çeng was produced in two forms; curved and flat. Although the curved box is encountered in the miniatures of Iran, Arabia, the Uighur Turks, China and even Japan, the flat one has only been seen in Ottoman miniatures. There were difficulties with the çeng, which was used up to the last quarter of the seventeenth century, in terms of manufacturing, playing, carrying and tuning the instrument. It receded from the scene of the music world with the increasing interest in the stringed instruments like the tanbur and the santur, and for similar reasons.



The Santur


The Santur is an instrument that organoloji classifies as one of ‘ the kitharas with strike ‘ it is known that some types of harp were plate by hitting the strings, it being held it in a horizontal position. This observation can be described as the first stage in the formation of the ‘Santur’. There are opinions that ‘the kitharas with the plectrum’ might be chronologically earlier than ‘the kitharas with strike’.

A few of the Ottoman santurs of the nineteenth century, which have survived to our age, have steel strings on the left hand side. Their bridges are not close to the edge. Thanks to that, high¬pitched sounds can be obtained from the left side of the instrument. Briefly, each steel string _ produces two sounds of the makam; one from the left and the other from the right. There are bronze strings on the right hand side. Their bridges are very close to the edge. The bronze strings that produce the sounds of the lowest pitch have to be as long as they can be. Briefly, I every bronze string gives a pitch of the makam. The parallel sides of the santur are quite long; therefore, the length of the strings is important rather than their number.

This instrument resembles the kanun in terms of the many strings that were stretched on a case being parallel to its base and its sound plate. Apart from its use in the Ottoman age, it was widely used in several Europian and Asian countries for many years. However, it has been forgotten for many years in Turkey. Even though an interest emerged in this instrument after the beginning of the twentieth century, it has remained quite limited.


This instrument is a isosceles trapezoid, different in shape from the "Kanun". It equally widens from the front side that is short to the back side that is wide. The strings in the Santur are mounted, as in the kanun, in groups. Every group of strings may have three, four or even five strings. The strings, depending on the conditions, were divided into two or three by way of the bridge placed on the sound table. However, there were difficulties for the santur, in terms of producing some sounds used in Classical Turkish music.

The Santur is played by plucking the strings with wooden sticks, called "tokmak (a drumstick)" or "zahme". Felt or leather may be wrapped round the end of the drumsticks depending on the performer's request.


The Sinekemanı (the Violin of bosom)


In fact, it was one of the instruments of the "viol" family, which was used in Western Europe until the eighteenth century, and was known as the "viola d'amore", which meant the violin of love in Italian. The "viola d'amore" must have been brought to Istanbul, most probably by diplomats, at the time it started to fall out of fashion in the middle of the eighteenth century.

Up to that time, the only bowed instrument of Turkish music was the kemançe, some also called it keman. The "viola d'amore" was called by Turks the "sînekemanı", since the instrument was played placing it on the bosom (the sine). The "sine kemanı", which became well-known and of much interest within a very short while, thanks to virtuosos like Corci of Roum and Miron of Moldovia, replaced the "kemânçe" in non-religious music. In the golden age of the Ottoman music, the reign of Selim the Third, the "sine-kemanı" was the most popular instrument. The "sine kemanı", which fell out of fashion in the nineteenth century, when the "keman (the violin)", became very popular in Turkish music environment; was kept alive by a few musicians, who could be counted as the fingers of one hand.

The holes of the sound plate of the "sinekemani" are generally in the shape of a flame; there is another round hole on the sound plate and this hole can be closed by a"kafes (a cage)". The length of its body is between 35 - 43 cm. The height of its sides varies between 4 and 7 cm. The instrument has 7(rarely 6) strings for melody, and also 7 strings for harmony. The strings for harmony, which are mounted, on one end, on the special pins near the tail screw, reach the pegs at the end of the peg plate, passing through the small holes on the bridge and under the key board. The peg plate of the
"sine-kemanı" is much longer than that of the violin, since the instrument has many strings for melody as well as the same number of strings for harmony (the ahenk). When the bow plays one of the strings for melody, the vibrating strings for harmony produce a lovely and sweet tone


The Şehrud


Şehrud is an instrument that organology classifies as one of "the short handled lutes". The root of the word "Şehrud" is "şâh-i rûd" in Persian, meaning "big river".

The şehrud, which is one of the most frequently depicted instruments in Iranian and Ottoman miniatures, has generally been pictured as an excessively big object. Thus, it is obvious that these miniatures are not realistic. To distinguish between some "ud" like instruments, to tell whether it is an ud or a şehrud, is quite difficult in some miniatures.

The şehrud, which had five strings like the ud, but was tuned to a pitch an octave lower, (comparing with the kopuz and the şeşhane), showing that the bigger versions of some instruments were manufactured, in the ancient east, to achieve a pitch an octave lower and in which the melody was played in this interval. There is no any important difference between the Iranian and the
Ottoman şehruds in terms of structure. However, from the miniatures, in Iran the stem of the instrument point straight down, while for the Ottoman instrument, it points upward.


The Ud


It is a stringed, short-handled, big-bodied instrument used in Turkey as well as in all the Arab countries including Tunisia, Marocco and Algeria, and also in Iran and Armenia. This instrument is also known as the "barbat" in Iran. The lavta of Europe has taken not only its name but also its shape from the "ud".

There is no structural difference used in the ud in Turkey today, from the ones used in other countries. However, it must be emphasised that the body of the Arab uds are generally a little bigger and there is mostly one big hole , instead of one big and two small holes. The circular holes in both the ud of Turkey and of the others (Arab, Iran, Armenia and Greece)' are embellished with roses, one for each hole. 'The ud has kept its current structure, except I for a few small changes, since very old times.

Approximately 20 crest-shaped wooden slices form the pear-shaped body of the instrument. ; The short and flat handle is mounted onto the body via the wedge. The width of the handle, which narrows towards the peg plate, is approximately 4 fingers wide in the place where it meets the body. The peg plate, being at an , angle of 45 degrees, draws a hardly visible S and the pegs fit into this part from the side.The five strings other than the one giving the lowest sound are pairs. Whereas the two pairs at the bottom were made from catgut in the past, they are made from fishing line today. The other strings are bandaged with silver or copper over the silk. These strings are tuned extensively to the low pitch from the high. Every string comes out from the string wedge which adheres directly to the sound plate, and each string is wound to its peg past the main bridge of the place where the peg plate and the handle meet The sound plate of the ud is a 1 mm thick board, made from the spruce tree with straight fibres. The laths supporting the sound table are called the "balcony".

The ud was played with a chicken wing or eagle wing in the past. Some masters used plectrums which were made of stiff stout leather or the bark of cherry trees. Today, plectrums made of plastic are used.


The Tanbur


The Tanbur was one of the most favourite stringed instruments of the Ottoman age, and perhaps was the most important one. Organologists state that the root of the term tanbur is pantur in Sumerian. This instrument, whose origin extends to very early times and which is believed to be an improved version of the bağlama, started to be popular at the Ottoman court, and as of the end of the seventeenth century, became an essential of Classical Turkish music.The Tanbur is perhaps the sole instrument today, which is played only in Turkey.

The body of the tanbur is in the shape of a semi-sphere, of which the perimeter is approximately 35 cm; it is produced by sticking the wooden slices side by side. The handle, which is approximately 104 cm, joins with the body, embedded into a wedge. The peg plate is the extension of the handle. Each string coming from the string's wedge with holes in the side of the body, after crossing over the bridge and lying along the handle, they are tied to their pegs, passing through the holed bridge carved into the handle, which is generally made of bone or similar material from within the neighbourhood. The bridge, which is mostly made from the juniper tree, presses down the sound plate, which is a thin plate made from the pine tree. The pressure of the strings causes the sound plate in the part under the bridge to be concave. The bottom of the handle is round and the top is flat. Whereas the cord of frets was made of catgut in the past, it is now produced from nylon. Whereas the number of frets on the tanbur was 35-36 in the past, it exceeds 60 today. Seven or eight strings are mounted on the tanbur.

The plectrum of the tanbur is generally made up of "bağa", the shell of tortoises. The plectrum is an inflexible stick, approximately 12 cm long, 9-10 mm wide and 1-1.5 mm thick. Both ends of the plectrum are used. Although the tanbur is a plucked instrument, it was first played by Tanburi Cemil Bey with a bow and this style having been adopted, this new instrument was called the "yaylı tanbur".


The Lavta


The lavta, which has the same origin as the ud, is a common name in the language of organology for all the instruments which have a body amplifying the sound of vibrating strings and a handle attached to it, and the plane of the strings that are wrapped around the pegs, passing over the handle and coming out from the body, and the body is parallel to the sound plate.
The instrument can be played with a bow, a plectrum or fingers. There are mainly two types of lavtas: the short handled and the long handled.

The origin of this instrument is thought to be Byzantium and starting from the second half of the nineteenth century, it is guessed that the lavta, which is different from the western version, was used in the Ottoman music, Its body, which is reminiscent of the ud, is smaller and its handle is slimmer and longer. It has four strings, three of which are pairs. These are tuned to the pitch with the interval of four sounds. Its sound range is approximately three octaves. The most important difference that distinguishes it from the ud is that the lavta has frets on the handle like the tanbur. Whereas the cord of frets was made of intestine in the past, it is now produced from fishing line. The number of frets has increased today as in the tanbur.

There is a big single circular hole on the sound plate of the lavta, the body of which is formed by adhering thin wooden slices side by side; and the sound plate is made of wood from the spruce tree with straight and dense fibers. The hole existing on the lavta is generally covered with a cage that is carved from ivory or horn. Generally, the bridge, which has the relief of the head of a bird on both ends, is adhered to the sound plate and also functions as a wedge for the strings. The plectrum, made of a flexible material as in the ud, is narrow and quite long. The plectrum, which was made of the quill of eagles or the bağa (the shell of tortoises) in the past, is made of plastic today. The peg plate is similar to the one that the ud has, but is smaller. There is a figure of the head of a bird, carved out of wood at the end of the peg plate.


The Kanun


The kanun,whose origin extends to very early times, is an instrument of the kithara type, that is played in North Africa and the countries of the Middle East; as well as in Iran,Uzbekistan,Macedonia,Kosova and Greece,together with Turkey. Some instruments similar to the kanun have been ancountered in China,Pakistan and India.

During its long history, the structural characteristics of the kanun, which has had many changes, are the same in all countries. The narrow and wooden case, which functions as the sound box, and on which the strings are stretched, has a tra pezoidal shape. There are non-standard cages on the sound plate. There is a part, where the leather is stretched, at the side of the upright edge. The legs of the bridge, over which the strings extend, press on this leather. Most strings are arranged in trios, a few in the lower part are duos. Every string, which comes out from the string wood and goes past the bridge at the right angled part, is wrapped around the tuning peg, passing through the special slot in the "mızgılık" extending along the sloped edge. The pegs forming a line of three files, go into the peg plate parallel to the mızgılık. The pegs, whose top ends are in the shape of a truncated pyramid, are twisted by a special metal tuning key. The catgut strings have been replaced with nylon ones today.

There are a set of 24, 25 or 26 strings; each having two or three strings in the kanuns of today (generally 75 strings in total). The strings are tuned in B flat. The length of the strings can be increased and decreased by moving the latches up and down; these small latches are placed under the strings just after the "Mızgılık". Thus, the intervals less than a semi tone can be obtained from the instrument during the performance. In the past, the pitches were played by pressing the strings with the thumbnail of the left hand or with the curved part of the tuning key, when there was no latch system. The reason why this instrument was made in the shape of a trapezoidal rectangle or slope-edged was so that could be tuned to the different sounds, heading towards the low pitch from the high by mounting the strings from long to short.

The performer plays the kanun with plectrums made of ivory, attached to his both hands' forefingers with thimbles, sitting on a chair and placing the kanun on his lap. Nowadays, some masters play it putting on a special table to obtain an intense sound.


The Kemançe (the Rebab)


It is an instrument that the organology classifies as one of the "kemanes having a foot". The "kemane having a foot" is composed of a rather ; long handle and a cylindirically shaped body.

"Kemançe", which is a Persian word, meaning "small bow" in terms of its origin, is used in, the meaning of the "little bowed-instrument ". Its body, which is in the shape of a truncated sphere, is generally made of the shell of coconut '' and the sound plate is made of leather. The big pegs of the instrument, which are carved in a lathe, go into the handle from the side. In the past, the strings were mounted, made of horse-hair or of catgut. The round handle goes into the body from the top and comes out from the bottom. The extension coming out from the body is a kind of "base stick". The kemançe is played, holding it between the knees and keeping its handle upright position to the floor; and the interval of its pitch is two or two and a half octaves,
Up to the eighteenth century, the kemançe was ' the only bowed instrument of Turkish music and it was used in both non-religious and sufic music, with great ceremony. Furthermore, in the mevlevi dergahs, where it was played under the name of rebab, the kemançe was thought to be sacred.
In the second half of the eighteenth century, since the "sine kemanı" was of great concern in non-religious music, the kemançe, which was disgraced and abandoned, was only used in mevlevi music. Even if rarely, it is still used , today.


The Kemençe


The kemençe is the common name of two different instruments; the one used in Ottoman music and the other used in the folk music of the Black sea region. It seems that the names for the former, which was used until the middle of the twentieth century; the "armudi kemençe (the pear shaped cement)" and "the kemençe of the fasıls" have been replaced with the "classical kemençe". As for the latter, which was known as a folk instrument, it is called "the Karadeniz kemençesi (the kemençe of the Black sea)". The classical kemençe is an instrument that is 40-41 cm in length and 14¬15 cm in width. Its body is reminiscent of a semi-pear and its peg plate is in the shape of an ellipse; its head, handle and neck are manufactured by carving and chiselling a single piece of wood. There are two D shaped holes on the sound plate, the round edges to the outside. The bridge is placed at a position between the two holes, so that one leg presses on the base stick and the other on the sound plate. There is no head bridge that equalises the vibrating lengths of the strings. The three strings are tuned to the following pitches: the yegah (the lower re), the rast (the middle sol) and the neva (the middle re). On the backside of the instrument, there is "the groove of the back". The catgut strings, to which a"tail wedge" is mounted on the special salient part at the bottom end of the body, are each connected to the metal "tail" wrapped around to its peg, passing over the bridge. In the past, the head, neck and the groove of the back of the kemençe were generally produced from ivory, mother-of-pearl or carved bağa.

When the instrument is played, the wedge of the tail is placed on the left knee, the pegs are leant against the chest, and it is held in a vertical position or is placed between the two knees. The strings of the kemençe are 7-10 cm high from the key board. The sounds are not obtained by pressing the strings with the fingers, as in most stringed instruments; but obtained by gently pushing them from the side.

The bowstrings, which are approximately 60 cm long and are held in a position so that the palm looks upward, can be stretched or loosened during the performance.


The Kopuz


The kopuz is an instrument that organology classifies as one of "the short-handled lavtas'". Since very old times, the term "kopuz”, which has been used in the meaning of "the instrument coming from central Asia, is used today, within the communities speaking one of the dialects of Turkish, for instruments resembling or not resembling each other. Today, it still survives in various ways, in the Turkish clans of central, western and northern Asia.

This instrument. which is thought to have been used in the Ottoman music of the fifteenth century, is guessed to have come to Anatolia before this time, via migrations, travellers and raids. Evliya Çelebi described the kopuz that was loved by the raiders of Anatolia, as a heroic (serhad) Instrument. The kopuz players used to be parts of entertainment in both peace and war time. while they narrated the stories and played the pieces that were experienced in war and peace.

With the ud, the kopuz. which was one of the most popular instruments of the twentieth century, started to be used in the Ottoman court in the reign of Mehmet the Conqueror at the latest. Its non-fretted handle is shorter that that of the tanbur and longer than that of the ud, One half of its body is leather, and the other is wood. The bridge presses on to the leather part. The kopuz, on which three or four pairs of strings are mounted, is played with a hard plectrum like that of the tanner. The Ottomans called a kind of kopuz that was bigger and tuned to a lower pitch by an octave the 'şeşhane, The kopuz abandoned its place to the tanbur in the seventeenth century and receded from the world of Instruments.


Wind Instruments The Mıskal (the Musikar)


The mıskal is an instrument that organology classifies as one of "the multi pipe flutes". Multi-pipe flutes are wind instruments that are formed of many reeds or bamboo pipes of different lengths (and generally perimeters) and every pipe corresponds to a pitch. The "multi-pipe flutes that were used since very ancient times were played all over the world within a certain period of time. For most of the multi pipe flutes, which organologists call pan flutes, the bottom side of the pipes are closed.

It has been thought that the word "the mıskal" in the Ottoman language, was a modified form of the word "musikar" in Persian. Despite the opinion that the "miskal" came to the Ottomans from Iran is widespread, similar instruments are known to have been used in the civilisations of Anatolia, since very old times. It was used with great interest until the middle of the eighteenth century, then was abandoned.

The 18-22 pipes of the mıskal were generally tuned to the pitches of the 'rast' makam. It could be tuned not only by the length of the pipes, but also by the ratio of the beeswax placed in the lower part.

There were two sizes of the "mıskal". The bigger was called the "şah mansur" and the smaller the "küçük mansur". The "instrument" was used in non-religious music; it was also used as a solo instrument indoors or with the `ney', or in open-air entertainments along with a shrill pipe instrument.


The Ney (the Nay)


The ney that is made of bamboo is perhaps one of the first instruments that human beings produced and one of the most important wind instruments of Ottoman music. Although the ney is a primitive instrument, which came from the very old times of history; it has an moving and otherwordly sound.

The word "ney" was derived from the word "nay" which means bamboo in Persian. The person who plays (or blows) the ney is called the "neyzen" or the "nayi".

The ney is one of the instruments that have a permanent tuning. The tuning of the ney is, established at the time its holes are opened and remains stable.

The bamboo used in production of the ney has to have 9 joints. The inner part of the ney is emptied. The topmost joint is not opened completely, remaining half opened. The holes that produce the sound (also called the perde), are distributed to the joints in a certain order. There are in total 7 holes, 1 on the back.

A head-piece, called the "başpare", is placed on the first joint (the boğaz) of the ney; this is also the blown part of the instrument and the "başpare" is made of the horn of oxes. Silver rings are fixed to both ends of the bamboo, to prevent it from cracking.

The ney is held at a certain angle, placing it on the left or right knee, and the lips produce a slight pressure on the başpare from the side. The sounds of the lowest pitch are called the "dem sesler".
When the holes are opened by the fingers by a half or by a quarter, some special intermediary sounds can be produced. There are also sounds obtained by bending the head or by contracting the lips. The ney, which is one of the fundamental instruments of Mevlevi music (the other is the kudüm), was commonly used in non-religious music for a long period.

Special names, from the low pitch to the high are given to various sizes of ney: the "bolahenk", the "davud", the "şah", the "mansur", the "kızney", the "müstahsen", the "sipürde".


The Kudüm



The kudüm, which is formed of a pair of small drums being in the shape of a semi-sphere and which is one of the important instruments of religious music. was called the "nakkare" in non-religious and 'mehter' music. The "kudüm" is similar to two bowls. one small and the other large; they are made of wrought copper and the perimeter is approximately 28-30 cm. The bowls, which are 16 cm in height narrow towards the bottom. 1 mm thick for the small and 2 mm thick for the large, the hides are stretched to the rim of the bowls. There must be an interval of 2 and a half tones (a perfect fourth) between the sound of drums. The higher pitched drum (the tek) is placed to the left, and the other (the düm) is to the right. The tek, on which the thinner hide is stretched, is also a bit smaller than the düm is in size. The strong beats of the usul are played on the düm, and the weak ones on the tek.

The drums, placed on a pair of leather rings stuffed with cotton, to prevent them from trembling or being turned upside down, are played using a pair of wooden sticks, called the "zahme". The copper body of the kudüm is covered with tanned leather to eliminate the metalic sound. The hides of the kudüm, which are made of the leather of the camel, are stretched using catgut. Changes requested in the tuning are made by way of heating or moisturising the leather or by stretching the catgut.


The Daire and the Tef


These percussion instruments, which were used in Anatolia from very ancient times, were also used in both religious and non-religious music in the Ottoman age.

Tefs are classified as one of the percussion instruments used in Classical Turkish music. It has a thin hoop and is covered with hide. The daire is made using a wooden hoop, which is 30-40 cm long and on which hide is stretched. This hoop is generally made of the walnut tree. The bronze discs, which are generally 810 cm long and are attached to the rod that passes through the discs and attached to the slots cut on the hoop, are assembled in pairs. When the hide is hit, these discs clink and therefore a more colourful sound is obtained. Several types of chains and rings are also used outside the disc. The instrument that has a much smaller perimeter than the daire is called the "zilli tef".

The daire without the zil, which is mostly used in sufi music, is called the "bendir, bender" or the "mazhar". One or two piece of catgut are stretched to fit the perimeter of the hoop across the inner side of the hide in the bendir. This process adds a hum to the sound of the hide. This instrument, which has an approximately 50-60 cm perimeter, does not have the ziI.

Coatings on the hoop made from valuable woods or ornaments worked with the ivory, mother-of-pearl and bağa make the instrument valuable. The darbuka was not used until the beginning of the nineteenth century, and the usuls were played using the tef and the daire. The "tef" was named and used in different shapes and sizes, depending on the genre in which it was used, such as the "derviş tefi", the "zikir tefi", the "fasıl tefi", etc.
The Self Resonating Instruments


The Zil


According to the documents,zils known as “çalpara” were encountered in Anatolia in the third millenium BC of the Bronze Age From that time on in every period of time , zils were produced and used in Anatolia For the sake of resonance, various things were done and the zils were produced using wrought copper. More work was done during the procces of development and various alloys were tried in production of zils to make more resonant sounds. Research on zils was carried out especially by the Zilciyan family at the end of the fifteenth century and in the seventeenth century. High quality zils started to be produced using an alloy which was a mixture of tin, copper and gold. These zils are still known as the most resonant today. This alloy was a secret within the wold of the zils and has always remainedin the monopoly of the Zilciyan family.

By shaping the zils into various contours, a veriety of usage was created. Among these the following can be counted : the “parmak zilleri” the “zilli maşa” the “çalpara/çalpare” the “halile” , etc. The Halile was used in the orchestras of the ottoman court , the discs of the halile have handlesmade of tanned leather , the central part of it is concave , and it is played by hitting the discs with each other. Various sizes of halile are used in ensembles of clasical Turkish music, depending on the styles of the musical pieces to be performed.


The Kaşık (the spoon) / Şakşak


The widely accept “ kaşık” is the one that is made of boxwood: and it is one of the self-respnating instruments.Kaşıks are instrument generally very similar to one another .Generally the handle parts are taken between the fingers; if there are oval parts they are taken , while being played, within the hand in such a way as to come to the rack i if of the ‘slapstick kind’, it is played by beating and holding together the handles. Both can also be played by holding it in a different way

Benefited from the interaction of a variety of cultural assets from across the large geographical area it ruled, and developed an aesthetic of high quality and a music unique to itself. This aesthetic, thanks to the prominent instrumentalists and performers who have followed this tradition, continues it existence today and retains its authentic place in world music, together with its historical attributes.