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CALLIGRAPHY       


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Calligraphy (“hat”) means writing and the calligrapher is called as “hattat”. The main source for the development of calligraphy art is the Holy Quran. While writing the utterances of God, they were tried to be written in the most beautiful form. Besides the religious and literary writings, calligraphy had been enacted on the panels written to be hanged in various places, on the inscriptions, altars and domes of the structures like mosques. It is enacted with reed pens and with the usage of Arabian alphabet. The measure in calligraphy is the full stop. There are various writing styles and every one of them has its own full stop measure. In the 10th century, the Abbasid vizier İbn Mukle Kufi changed the writing and developed six different writing characters named Aklam-ı Sitte. It is composed of Muhakkak, Reyhani, Sulus, Nesih, Tevki and Rıka. Muhakkak was the first writing style developed after kufi and it was replaced by sulus with time. Reyhani is the smaller writing than the muhakkak writing. It had been used in the writing of the Quran until the 16th century. The dictionary meaning of sulus is one third and one third of the letters are flat, two third of the letters are round. The smaller writing than sulus is nesih writing and it had been used much. In tevki writing, the letters come together that do not come together in sulus writing. The smaller style of the tevki writing is rıka. In the course of time, writings named Talik, Nestalik, Divani, Celi and Rık’a had developed. The talik and nestalik writings had been developed by the Persians. Divani means belonging to the imperial court and it has an alphabet on its own, joining styles of the letters on its own. Celi was written with thick reed pens and the texts intended to be read from afar were written in celi style. Celi sulus is the most used style and it had replaced kufi writing in the inscriptions as of the Seljuq period. Rık’a had been developed by the Ottomans, it is an easy style and it had been used widely in correspondence and books. The calligrapher of the Abbasid palace, Yakut-i Mustasimi from Amasya had determined the aesthetic measures of the writing. Seyh Hamdullah (1520), teacher of Sultan II. Bayezit had developed the aesthetic measures in writing and made İstanbul the capital of the calligraphy art with Quran, En’am, prayer book, kıt’a and murakka. Ahmed Karahisari (1556) had worked as a palace calligrapher during Sultan Süleyman the Magnificent period. He formed different writing designs in celi writing and especially with successive calligraphy linked to each other like a chain. One of the important calligraphers of the 17th century was Hafız Osman (1698) and he taught Sultan II. Mustafa. Delail Hayratın is his book of miniatures composed of scripture, hadith and prayers. The first hilye arrangement was attributed to him. One of the important calligraphers of 18th – 19th century was Mustafa Rakım (1826) and he became the most important calligrapher of Ottomans in celi sulus style. He worked on the composition characteristics like the distance between the letter and word, the distance of vertical letters in celi sulus style and he captured the aesthetic unity. Another important calligrapher of this period was Mahmud Celaleddin (1829) and he composed works in celi writing, too. It was interesting of him to write elif letters in his own style. Sultan Abdülmecid was one of his students. Another teacher of Sultan Abdulmecid was Kazasker Mustafa İzzet (1876). The panels in the Ayasofya (Aigha Sophia) Mosque are his works. İsmail Hakkı Altunbezer with his writings in Edirnekapı Mihrimah, Uskudar Selimiye and Semsi Pasa mosques; Halim Ozyazıcı with his writings in Sokollu Mehmet Pasa mosques in Azapkapı and Sultanahmet; Hamid Aytac with his writings in Eyup Sultan and Fındıklı Molla Celebi mosques are the most important calligraphers of the current period.