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[Anatolian Civilizations] [Ancient civilisations]


THE ROMAN CIVILIZATION      


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The Roman Empire existed in Anatolia in the period between 27 BCE – 395 AD and following the introduction of Christianity in 395 AD, the Roman Empire continued to exist in Anatolia under the name of the Eastern Roman Empire (Byzantium). Before the introduction of Christianity, many structures were built in different regions of Anatolia; these structures have subsisted until today although they are either fallen into ruin or in good condition. Agoras, sanctuaries, stoas (a gallery covered on the top and uncovered on the front), gymnasions (big buildings for sports, there are arched colonnades and courtyards around them), theatres, odeons (places where concerts are given and poems are publicly read), stadiums, bouleterions (city parliament hall), entrance doors of antique cities, libraries, fountains, aqueducts, water channels, bridges, castles, baths, herons (special structures constructed for the memory of the heroes) and monumental structures like monumental tombs are the Roman archaeological heritages which constitute tour stops in Turkey. The geographical distribution of these structures is indicated below.

Concerning the structures from the Roman period in the Black Sea Region, we can start with the Alcak Kopru (Low Bridge) in Amasya. The entire bridge was built from hewn stone. Since the river level gradually increased and the river bed was filled up, the bridge became low; that is why it is called the “Low Bridge” publicly. A Roman sarcophagus, which was found in Merzifon, is exhibited at Amasya Museum. A Roman gravestone with reliefs is also exhibited at the same museum. Historical artefacts of the Roman civilization can be seen at Corum museum. There are predominantly Hittitian artefacts at Bogazkale museum but it is also possible to see the Roman artefacts. It is possible to see the Roman rock-cut tombs in Iskilip and Osmancik districts of Corum.

Duzce’s Konuralp Antique City (Prusias Ad Hypium): It is possible to see Roman sculptures and mosaics in the city. The sculpture of a sitting lady and a sculpture of a man, which were found in Konuralp region, are exhibited at Istanbul Archaeology Museum. A marble sculpture of a child, which is dating back to 3rd century AD and which was found in Konuralp’s Sarafiye location in 1949, is among the artefacts which are on display at Istanbul Archaeology Museum. The Venus statuette, which is like Milo’s Venus, the marble sculpture of Aphrodite unfastening her sandals, a number of small plasto capitals dating back to 2nd century AD and the pieces of the armoured sculpture of the Roman emperor are among other important artefacts. There are Roman artefacts available to see at Konuralp Museum.

There is Amissos Antique City in Samsun. The foundlings of the antique city are displayed at Samsun Archaeology Museum.

The Niksar Tower, Tokat is a Roman structure. Besides, it is estimated that the bridge, which is on the Canakci River and which on the way out of Arasta, is also a Roman artefact. On a piece of Roman frieze, which is dating back to 2nd century AD and which was found at Sebastopolis (Sulusaray) outdoor museum, there is a relief on which a bull’s head and a Medusa are depicted between the girlants. It is possible to se Roman artefacts at Tokat museum and its garden. The Roman civilization can also be traced in Tokat’s Zile town. The theatre, which was carved on rocks in the east direction of the Zile tower, was built in the Roman period. The Roman emperor Julius Caesar spread the word “Veni, Vidi, Vici” (I came, I saw, I conquered) after the victory he won in this region.

The Augustus Temple, the Julianus Column, the Roman bath (Caracalla), the Roman theatre are all in Ankara and they can be listed among the Roman period heritages in Central Anatolia. Besides, one can see the Roman artefacts at Anatolian civilizations museum and Beypazari history and culture museum, both of which are in Ankara.

It is possible to see Roman artefacts at Cankiri museum. The Orta/Sakaeli rock-cut tombs are in Sakaeli village of Cankiri’s Orta district. They are predicted to be the Roman and Byzantium tombs.

Roman artefacts which were found in Suluca-Karahoyuk excavation are exhibited at Haci Bektas Archeology and Etnography Museum, Nevsehir.

Karatli town, Nigde, is famous with its Roman “Kuskayasi Cemetery”. The most important and spectacular foundlings from the Roman period were found in Tyana Antique City. Aqueducts and a Roman pool with a garden are among the Roman artefacts of the antique city.

A number of artefacts found in Altintas village of Erzincan’s Ilic district are among many Roman artefacts in Eastern Anatolia. There is a Roman cemetery in Kemaliye. Besides, there are Hasgel ruins and Arsanias ruins from the Roman period in the district. The sacred stone and the Roman warehouse (warehouse at the port) are in Erzincan. The warehouse is consisted of three roundhouses. There are Roman artefacts in Kutlutepe Ruins, which are around Cengerli village of Erzincan’s Refahiye district. The Roman ceramic objects, oil lamps and pipes are exhibited at Ahlat museum, Bitlis. The Roman archeological heritages are on display at Kars museum. The surroundings of Malatya’s Battalgazi district (ancient Malatya) were enclosed by ramparts in the time of Emperor Trajan (98-117 AD). The ruins which are extant today are on display at Malatya museum. A Roman monumental tomb was found in a tumulus at Masattepe location, which is in the centre of Yenice village of Darende district as a consequence of a rescue excavation. The small portable ruins are established and today they are exhibited at Malatya museum. Dogansehir is a reputable district with its Roman rampart ruins. There are Roman culture zones in Aslantepe, which is located at Orduzu of Malatya’s central district, on Malatya-Elazig motorway and at the Furuncu mounds, which are on the junction of Furuncu village. There are also Roman culture zones in Fethiye and Karaca villages of Yazihan district and at the Kurucay (Haci Hoyuk) mounds, which is located at Kurucay. There are also Roman cultural zones at the Kaletepe mound, which is at the Sabandede location of Yesilyurt district.

One can trace back the Roman heritage in South-eastern Anatolia. The Besni Sesonk (Dikilitas) tumulus in Adiyaman is a Roman monumental tomb. The Cendere Bridge is on the Kahta stream and it was built in the Roman period. The Sofraz tumulus is in Ucgoz village of Besni district. The ancient Diyarbakir was encircled by ramparts. The first shape of the ramparts was given in the Roman period in the middle of the 4th century AD. It is indicated that the city castle was strengthened by encircling the city with ramparts in the time of the Roman emperor Constantin II. The Diyarbakir castle, which has 18 towers and which was constructed in the Roman period, has two main sections: the internal castle and the external castle. The Gaziantep castle is a structure constructed in the Roman period for the purpose of observation tower. The Roman ruins are on display at Gaziantep Archeology Museum.

As a consequence of the excavations done in 1992 at the Zeugma Antique City, which is in Nizip district, a Roman villa dating back to 2nd century AD was found. The villa has a plan which provides a courtyard. Mosaics of great artistic value are found at the villa’s meeting and reception room (tablinium) and the gallery in front of it. For the purpose of preservation, the mosaic segments were ripped out and taken to Gaziantep Museum Directorate. The Korus-Kiris Antique City, which is 20 km west of Kilis, is a Roman settlement. There are an antique theatre, a castle and the ruins of a sanctuary in this region. There are ruins from the Roman period in Kuzuini (Kuzeyne) village, which is 5 km northwest of Kilis. The Roman artefacts are exhibited at Mardin Archaeology Museum. There are rock-cut cave houses from the late Roman period around Oguz village, which is 30 km southeast of Mardin. It is estimated that The Sanliurfa Castle, which is at an overlooking location on Damlacik Mountain, was built in the 4th century BCE. There are many Roman construction ruins, as well as two columns with Corinthian caps, in the castle. Suayb City, which is known as Ozkent village and which is among the ruin locations of Sanliurfa, is enclosed with ramparts and it was founded in the Roman period. There is a basalt sculpture of the Roman goddess of victory, “Nike”, at Sanliurfa Archaeology and Ethnography Museum.

There are multitudinous traces of the Roman period in the Aegean region. There are many Roman and Byzantine artefacts at Afyon Museum. There are removable Roman cultural properties exhibited at Bolvadin Museum. There are Roman-Byzantine rock settlements in Ihsaniye. The silver Cistophorus and bronze coins were minted, in cooperation with Hieropolis, in the name of the emperor at Suhut. There are rock-cut toms with lids, dating back to the late Roman period at the Bininler rock cliff in the vicinity of Senir village, which is 6 km west of Suhut. Alabanda is a Carian city, which is located at Araphisar village in Aydin’s Cine district. There is a Roman aquaduct in the south of the city. Aphrodisias is an antique settlement, which is located in the borders of Geyre village, which is 12 km away from Aydin’s Karacasu district. The ruins of the antique city are dating back to the 2nd and 3rd century AD. The Tiberius portico, agora and stadium in the north of the city are roman constructions. It is possible to see Roman ruins at Gerga, which is on the Deliklitas location of Aydin’s Cine district. The ruins found at Harpasa, which is in the borders of Esenkoy of Aydin’s Nazilli district, reveal that this region is a Roman settlement. Kusadasi was under the domination of the Romans as from the 2nd century BCE. There are traces of the Roman civilization in the city. Magnesia (Magnesia ad Meandrum) is at Tekinkoyu region, which is in the subdistrict of Ortaklar located at Aydin’s Germenik district. There are a Roman gymnasion, bath structure, stadium for 25.000 people, pipeline and an unfinished structure called theatron in this region. Miletus (Milet) is an antique city located in the vicinity of Akkoy 30 km away from Aydin’s Soke district. Milet Museum is an important centre in the sense that it exhibits the ruins found in excavations. There is a Roman amphitheatre for 15.000 people and a bath structure in Milet. Nyssa is an antique city founded on the hillside of Malgac Mountain in Aydin’s Sultanhisar district. There are a bath structure, gymnasion, stadium, bridge, and a theatre for 12.000 people and a bouleterion (city parliament hall), which is dating back to the 1st century AD, in the city. Priene is in close vicinity of Gulbahce town, 15 km away from Aydin’s Soke district. There are Roman ruins in the region. It is possible to see a Roman bath structure at the antique settlement, Tralleis, which is in the borders of Aydin. Hierapolis (Pamukkale) is in 18 km north of Denizli. It was founded by the king of Bergama Eumenes II in the 2nd century BCE. The city takes the name Hierapolis from the city’s legendary founder Telephos’ wife Hiera. Hierapolis was razed by an earthquake in the time of the Roman emperor Tiberus (14-37 AD) and went through a series of earthquakes henceforth. The city which was destroyed in a large extent as a result of these earthquakes lost its Hellenistic identity entirely and the rebuilt city took the appearance of a typical Roman city. South-north gates, theatre, the Apollon temple, Great Bath, Bath Basilica, agora, The Triton fountain and necropolis (cemetery) in Hierapolis are amazing structures. The Tripolis Antique City is in 40 km north of Denizli. There is a theatre structure in ruins, partially standing bath, the late Roman and Byzantine castle and rampart walls and a necropolis in the city. The Roman archaeological heritages found in the Attuda Antique City and the ruins of other civilizations found in the district are exhibited at the museum store. The Tabae Antique City is like a natural castle. The bath structure built in the Roman period is among the ruins extant in today. There are Roman and Byzantine ruins in the Sebastopolis Antique City. There are Hoyuk Hill, stadium and necropolis (cemetery) among them. The Zeus Laodikos figure on many coins of the empire period is an indication of the significance given to the Zeus culture in the Laodikeia antique City. The monumental fountain, stadium and the gymnasium, which was built to constitute a unity with the stadium, the remnants of the embellishment examples of the Zeus temple in the east of the street with columns and between the small theatre and Nymphaeum, the big theatre structure in the northeast of the city for 20.000 people, whose skene part is completely in ruins and whose cavea and orchestra parts are in a very sound state, small theatre structure and the parliamentary building in the southwest which is mostly in ruins are among the Roman artefacts in the city. It is possible to see the ruins of the Colossae Antique City at the mound and the area surrounding it. The Heracleia Salbace Antique City settlement is mostly located at the north region encircled with the ramparts. The most important ruin of this settlement is the Roman stadium. Apollonia Salbace Antique City and Medet Mound is in 7 km west of Denizli’s Tavas district. The basis and inscriptions of the Apollon Temple, which was constructed in the time of Emperor Hadrian (117-138 AD), are present at the city. The basis of the Apollon Lermenos Temple is dating back to the Hellenistic age and the upper parts of the temple are from the Roman period. By looking at the inscriptions on the base of the sculptures in Heroon, it is comprehended that this place is a very important religious centre. Apollon Lermenos is symbolized with a “double axe” at this religious centre. Most of the ruins of the Trapezopolis Antique City are below the ground. The ruins on the ground are reflecting the properties of the Roman and Byzantine periods. The Roman ruins are seen in Vakif village of Tavas district. Vakif village, which was a great settlement place previously, is also called by the name of Heraclies. An antique theatre is also discovered in the same region.

The acropolis in Bergama, Izmir was built on a hill, approximately 300 m high. There is a temple built for the Roman emperor Trajan on the highest terrace in the acropolis. It is possible to see the Roman artefacts at Bergama Archaeology Museum. There are the ruins of a Roman castle on the way to Gurcesme (Kancesme), which is in the district of Buca. The still standing Kizilcullu (Sirinyer) Aqueducts on the Kemer stream and on the hillside of Kadifekale were built when Izmir was under the rule of the Romans. The aqueducts built on the Melez stream at Kizilcullu are also known as the “Akvaduk aqueducts”. Villa structures were built at Ildirli village of Cesme district in 133 AD, when this region was under the Roman rule. Villas in the region called Cennet tepe (hill) is famous with its mosaics. There is also a bath structure of late Roman-Byzantine periods in this region.

The foundation of the Ephesos Antique City (Selcuk district) is extended back to the 6000s BCE, Neolithic age. However, Ephesos we see today was founded by Lysimakhos, one of the generals of Alexander the Great, in 300 BCE. There are many Roman ruins in Ephesos: The Temple of Domitian, the Temple of Hadrian, the Temple of Serapis, Theatre, the Vedius Gymnasion, the theatre Gymnasion, Stadium, Odeon, the State Agora, the Commercial Agora, Prytaneion (city hall), the Celcus Library, the Fountain of Trajan, Terrace Houses (the houses of the rich), Gate of Mazeus-Mithridates, Gate of Herakles, Marble Road, Curetes Street, Arcadiane (Harbor Street), Port Baths, Scholastica Baths, Brothel and Church of Virgin Mary (Double Church) are among these ruins. The artefacts, which were found in the Ephesus antique city and its environment, are preserved at Selcuk-Efes Archaeology Museum.

Gaius Sextillius Pollio Aquaduct is a one of the many Roman artefacts found in Izmir’s Selcuk district. It is possible to see Roman artefacts at Izmir Archaeology Museum. In the excavations done at Uluca mound, which is at Ulucak location of Izmir’s Kemaplasa district, three layers of culture were found. The upper layer has the late Roman and Byzantine settlements. The Kyme Antique City is in the borders of Aliaga district. There is information concerning that the city was founded approximately in 1046 BCE. It is revealed by the archaeological ruins and historical soruces that the city of Kyme retained its importance particularly in the early periods of the Roman Empire. In the excavations which have lasted for 21 years, a temple, theatre area, rampart wall, houses, a bath, street and aqueducts have been revealed.

Myrina, in the north of Izmir’s Aliaga district, is a city founded on two hills, which are at the last bay of Candarli gulf. After the domination of the Bergama kingdom, the city was ruled by the Romans. There are Roman structures in the Teos antique city, which is in Seferihisar district.

The Aizanoi Antique City is in Cavdarhisar district, which is in 57 km southwest of Kutahya. It is a Roman city which was founded on two banks of the Bedir stream. The city improved enormously particularly in the reign of Hadrian (117-138 AD). Sea walls were built on two banks of the Bedir stream and the transportation is provided with five bridges which still exist today. On the left bank of the stream, there is an agora, a small temple, the Zeus temple, a bath, stadium and theatre. On the right bank of the Bedir stream, a stock exchange building, a bath with mosaics, a street with a column and monumental gate ruins are present. The theatre and the stadium are located adjacently and have an exceptional plan. It is stated that as a consequence of the excavations, the bath structure has typical Roman bath properties. There are some rock-cut shelters, tomb chambers, places used as pen and stable, cisterns and warehouses in the Phryg valley, which is close to Ovacik village, which is by the 26th km of Kutahya-Eskisehir motorway.

Mugla is one of the oldest settlement centres of the ancient Caria region. There are many Roman artefacts to see in Mugla and its vicinity. There is a Roman amphitheatre in Fethiye, which was known as the city of prophets,Telmessos in the antique age. The Romans added Bodrum (Halikarnosos) into the Asia Minor State. It is possible to see Roman columns, a Roman temple whose walls dispersed and a small section of aqueducts in the Bargylia Antique City. The Cadianda Antique City is in the vicinity of Yesil Uzumlu location, which is 20 km away from Fethiye. The ruins of the bath structure, which was built by using carved stones in the acropolis, are extant today. A lot of temple was built in Knidos, Datca in the Roman period and they were transformed into churches in the Byzantine period. Besides, there is Roman bouleterion (city parliament hall) and a monumental tomb in this region. There is a Zeus temple, which was predicted to be built after the reign of Emperor Hadrian (117-138 AD) in the Euromos Antique City. 8 columns are still standing on its front. Archaeological artefacts from the Roman period are exhibited at Fethiye Museum. The Hyllarima Antique City is scattered around a hill. Among the ruins of the city, there is a Roman theatre structure which is in good condition today. The portico with a column seen in the Iasos-Kiyikislacik Antique City was built in the Roman period. There are the ruins of a Roman bath structure in the Kaunos Antique City’s acropolis, which was founded on a hill, 152 m high. The Keramos Antique City is in between Oren and Akyaka and it was in the Asia Minor state of the Roman Empire in 129 AD. The antique city is a big Roman complex. There is a Roman theatre structure, which is in good condition today, in the Letoon Antique City. The triumphal arch, which is one of the most spectacular ruins which are by the wayside and 2 km away from Gelemis village on Fethiye-Kalkan motorway, is a Roman structure and it is in the Patara Antique City. The triumphal arch was built at the end of the 1st century AD. The Roman bath can be seen among the ruins on the hillside. There is a Roma theatre in the Pinara Antique City. The Xanthos Antique City was destroyed by fires and wars ever so often and it was rebuilt with great toils in each time. The ruins of an arc, which was built in the memory of the Roman emperor Vespasian, are present. There is also a Roman acropolis on the right side of the road and in the opposite of the Lycia acropolis at Xanthos.

The Kyzikos Antique City in Balikesir is among the artefacts from the Roman period in the Marmara region. The Temple of Hadrian, which is accepted as the 8th wonder of the world, is in the Roman antique city in Balikesir’s Erdek district. There is also a Roman theatre structure in the antique city. The Antandros Antique City is also in Balikesir. There is a villa from the later Roman period in the antique city. Mosaics and frescos of this period were discovered in the villa. There are Roman city walls and a Roman theatre in Iznik, Bursa. There is the Kastel Castle, which was built in the Roman period and which gave its name to the district, in Bursa’s Kestel district. The Miletopolis Antique City is in the Melde Bayiri location of Bursa’s Kemalpasa district. A Roman temple which was built by the emperor Hadrian, a palace which was built in the name of Theodore Laskaris and a Roman bath are present in the antique city. There are a number of structures and a temple which was built by the Roman emperor Hadrian in the Hadrianopolis Antique City.

The 9th settlement layer is the setllement of the Romans in the Troya Antique city of Canakkale. A Roman bouleterion (city parliament hall), a theatre and the ruins of a structure with mosaic pavements on the front part of the theatre are present in the antique city. There is a Roman necropolis (cemetery) in the Assos Antique City.

Sculptures and coins dating back to the Roman period are seen in the part where the archaeological ruins are exhibited at Edirne Archaeology and Ethnography Museum. Besides, there is an altar structure on which there is a relief of Eros (the god of love) and which is embellished with other mythological creatures in the museum garden. The Edirne Castle was built by the emperor Hadrian.

Istanbul was conquered by the Roman emperor Septimus Severus after a two year siege which began in 191 AD. There are lots of Roman artefacts in the city. Septimus Severus’ and Constantin’s walls, Hypodrome (Sultan Ahmet Square), Goths column, Constantine’s Column (Cemberlitas), Beyzit Square, Valens (Bozdogan) Aqueduct are among these artefacts. Besides, there are various Roman artefacts exhibited at Istanbul Archaeology Museum.

There is a Roman theatre structure in Kirklareli’s Vize district.

Roman artefacts are exhibited at Yalova outdoor museum. Black Church (Kara kilise), which is also present at Yalova, is a water architecture structure from the Roman period.

You can see a great many antique cities and architectural artefacts from the Roman period in the Mediterranean Region. The Anavarza Antique City in Adana was known as Caesarea and Anabarsum in the Roman age. A bath structure, an amphitheatre outside the ramparts, a stadium, aqueducts, rock-cut tombs and a triumphal arch with three spans are present in the antique city. As a consequence of earthquakes, only a small part of the triumphal arch is extant today. The Sar Antique City is in the north point of Tufanbeyli district and it is several kilometres away from Kayseri city borders. Roman artefacts are present in the antique city. There is a Roman bath structure in Ayas (Aigaiai – Yumurtalik) Antique City. The amphitheatre in Karatas district, Yanik Church and Ancient Magarsus Church were built in the Roman period.

The theatre structure, which has a capacity of 8700 seats, is a structure built in the 3rd century AD in Selge, Antalya. Kocain Cave is on the 45 km north of Antalya. There are 50-60 m. high pillars and a cistern from the Roman period in the cavern. It is possible to see Roman artefacts and coins in the Hall of Gods, the Hall of Emperors and the Hall of Coins at Antalya Museum.

Bronze, marble, terracotta, glass and mosaic ruins and coins from the Roman period can be seen at the archaeological artefacts section and rock and mosaic artefacts from the Roman period can be seen in the garden of Alanya Archaeology Museum. The Colybrassus Antique City is a Roman antique city, which is on the 30 km. northwest of Alanya. A temple, the sarcophagi in the necropolis and a rock-cut tomb are among the extant artefacts. The Laertes Antique City was founded on a hillside, which is at the mouth of a valley on the Taurus Mountains and which is on the 25 km. east of Alanya. Observation towers, a semicircle seating used by people for talking in agora, the street of emperors, Odeon, theatre, the temples built in the name of Zeus, Apollon and Caesar, agora, bath and necropolis are among the extant Roman artefacts in the antique city. The Nephelis Antique City is on the 55 km. east of Alanya and it is on top of a high hill stretching to the sea. The temple has been preserved up to the level of the façade. The Lamus Antique City is on the 55 km. east of Alanya and it is on 2 km. north of Adana village. The city gate has been preserved by a huge castle. In the inner part of the city wall there is a second layer of wall; and this proves the existence of an inner castle in the city. One of the temples of the city was built in the name of the Roman emperor Vespasian and the other was built in the name of the Roman emperor Titus. The Perge Antique City is on the 17 km. of Antalya-Alanya motorway, at Aksu location. A theatre from the Hellenistic-Roman age, a stadium which has a “U” plan, monumental fountain built in the memory of Artemis Pergaia and Septimus Severus (the sculptures of the emperor and the empress in the fountain are exhibited at Antalya Museum today) and a nympheon (monumental fountain) from the Hadrian period are among the Roman artefacts in the city. The Perge Theatre “Skene” is a worth seeing Roman artefact. Apart from the Dionysos frieze, that is standing in its original place in the theatre now, the pieces of Kentauromakhia and Gigantomakhia friezes and a number of architectural pieces, whose embellishments are completed partly, were discovered during the excavations done in Perge. It is estimated that the construction of the Perge Theatre Skene (in the ancient theatre, the name of backstage structure in front of which actors are playing their roles) started in 170 AD and the construction was completed in the reign of Emperor Septimus Severus (193 – 211 AD).

There are sarcophagi, rock-cut tombs, stele tombs and cisterns in the east and north sides of the acropolis of the Istlada Antique City, which is in Kas. All the tombs are dating back to the Roman period. The Kyaenai Antique City is on steep rock cliffs in Yavi village, which is 23 km. away from Kas. There are big and small Roman sarcophagi among trees. Since Kyaenai is a city where sarcophagi are mostly populated, it is also called the city of sarcophagi. There is a triumphal arch dating back to 1st century AD in the Patara Antique City which is 2 km. ahead of Gelemis village, which is in the vicinity of Kas district’s Kalkan city. In the centre of the Phaselis Antique City, which is on 16 km. west of Kemer, there is a street, which is 20-24 m. wide. In the south point of this street, there is the Hadrian Aqueduct Gate from the roman period. In the Olympos Antique City, the high hill which is seen from the beach and which is above the tombs is the acropolis of Olympos. There is a Roman theatre in Olympos. The Aspendos Antique City, which is on the 8 km. east of Antalya’s Serik district, was founded by the Achaeans in the 10th century AD. The theatre in the city was built by the Romans in the 2nd century AD and it is the most important structure of Aspendos. The theatre is the soundest and the most ancient example of the Roman theatres which are extant with their stage today.

The Oluk Bridge in Manavgat is the only singe arched bridge from the Roman period. The Side aqueducts were also built in the Roman period. A great section of the aqueducts and the channels in the region are preserved to date. Along with the temple of Athena, the Temple of Apollon is a Roman structure, which is in the courtyard of the Byzantine basilica and it is dating back to 150 AD. The Side Theatre is dating back to the Roman period, the 2nd century AD. The auditorium was built in accordance with the Hellenistic tradition with its shape extending a semicircle. The skene part is three storeys. The front part of the skene is decorated with columns, sculptures and niches. There are reliefs on which mythological incidents are depicted on the base of the part of the skene. The structure, on which Side Museum was constructed, is the restored bath, which is dating back to 5 or 6 century AD and which is located in opposition to the agora from the Roman period. You can see the sundial and altar, torsos, amphora, sarcophagi, the sculptures and portraits of Hermes, Hygieia, Athena, Nike and Apollon from the Roman period at the museum.

There are mosaics from the Roman and Byzantine periods between the 2nd and 5th centuries AD at Hatay Archaeology Museum, which is reputable with its mosaics.

The Titus Vespasian Tunnel is in the downtown district of the Selucia Pierria antique city and it was built in the 1st century AD in the Roman period. The tombs of the kings are in the vicinity of the Titus tunnel. The cemetery which is scattered in a wide area was built by carving the rocks on rock cliffs. 12 kings’ tombs from the Roman period are found in this region.

The Pisidia Antiocheia Antique City was founded in approximately 1 km. North of Isparta’s Yalvac district and on a fertile land which is stretching along the south hillside of the Sultan Mountains. There are two squares built in the name of Augustus and Tiberius in the city. These squares are in the east of the city, and this location is the centre of the city. The West gate (212 AD), which provided the security of the city, was decorated with reliefs of armour and arms. A temple was constructed in the name of Emperor Augustus on the highest sacred point of the city. Propylaeum (Monumental Entrance), which is dating back to 1st century AD, is located at the point where the Augustus square and the Tiberius square is intersected. The street with column, which is one of the most important parts of the city and which dates back to 1st century AD, is extending to the Tiberius Square. The ancient theatre which dates back to 4th century AD was built on a hillside close to the city centre. The Roman bath, which is in the northwest point of the city, dates back to the 1st or 2nd century AD and it was built in accordance with the Roman bath architectural style. The aqueducts, which are the symbols of the city, were built in the Roman period. Roman artefacts can be seen in the rich collection of Yalvac Museum. The Timbriada Antique City and the Eurymedon Sacred Site are on the south hillside of the Asar Hill, which is in the north of Mirahor neighbourhood of Isparta’s Aksu district. A vaulted bridge, which dates back to the Roman period, was built in front of the sacred site (eurymedon) of the city, and this bridge interlinked the sacred site and the cemetery in the south of the site. There is a relief of Eurymedon on the keystone of the bridge. There are temples, which were built in the name of Trajan and other emperors, among the Roman structures in the Adada Antique City.

Marble heads, sculptures and steles, amphoras, terracotta pots and pans, glass and bronze artefacts, bronze and gold coins from the Roman period are exhibited at Mersin (Icel) Museum.

The Anemurium Antique City (the ancient Anamur) is on the 6 km. southwest of today’s Anamur district centre. The antique city is encircled with ramparts and has mosaics worth seeing. On the opposite side of the Odeon, there is a two storey bath from the Roman period in the city. The Mamure Castle, which is on the 6 km. southwest of Anamur and which is on the Anamur-Mersin motorway, is estimated to be built by the Romans between 3-4 centuries AD. It is possible to see Roman artefacts at Anamur Museum.

Tirtir-Akkale in Silifke was founded in the late Roman period. A structure, which is predicted to be a palace, a bath and a cistern are present among the ruins. The Temple of Rome is in the Silifke district centre. Although there are 14 Corinthian capped columns on the long side of the temple and there are 8 of them on the short side of it, only one of the columns is standing today. The ruin of a Mosaic Site, which is predicted to be either gymnasium or bath, with a coloured mosaic base built in opus-sectile technique (a kind of mosaic produced by lining up marble pieces, which are cut in different shapes, side by side) was discovered and this ruin was from the 2nd century AD, which is from the Roman period. The Three Beauties Mosaic was found on the sea shore at Narlikuyu bay and it is the base of bathe section of the bath structure dating back to 4th century AD. The Olba Antique City was founded on a plateau on the 30th km. of an asphalt way crossing between forests and a valley extending from Silifke district to the Taurus Mountains. The theatre structure in the antique city is dating back to the Roman period. Upper (Yukari) monumental tombs are the single and two storey monumental tombs of the nobles.

The ancient bath, which is in Tarsus district, is alongside the Yeni Vakif Office Building and it is a bath from the Roman period. The Roman Way is in the upper part of Saglikli village, which is 15 km. away from Tarsus. It is 3 km. long with the sound parts. Donuktas is in the Tekke neighbourhood of Tarsus and it is understood that this ruin is a Roman temple. The length of the external walls is 15 m., the outer width is 43 m., its height is 7 m., and the wall thickness is 6.60 m.

Glass, bronze, rock and ceramic artefacts from the Roman period are on display in the archaeological section of Kahramanmaras Museum. Besides, gold jewellery, bronze, silver and gold coins from the Roman period are present in this section. Sculptures and steles from the Roman period are exhibited in the rock artefacts hall.

Structures seen in the Kastabala Antique City, Osmaniye today are entirely from the Roman period. The most important ruin of antique structures, which are extant in very good conditions today, is undoubtedly the street with column. The street with column, which runs to the east, reaches a terrace. Underneath this terrace, there is the stadium of the city which extends in east-west direction. On the west point of this stadium, the city theatre is present. In the south of the theatre, it is possible to see the ruins of a bathe. This area, where the theatre, stadium and bathe are very close to each other, was the centre of city’s daily life. Two churches, which are dating back to 6th century AD, are worth paying attention. Round altars with inscriptions, which were erected for the dead and alive emperors, certificate the existence of Roman Emperor culture in Kastabala.