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[Anatolian Civilizations] [First settlements in Anatolia]


HACILAR      


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Archaeological settlement layers from different periods were found in the Hacilar settlement, which is about 26 kilometres southwest of Burdur. As well as the first settlement layer dating back to 8000 B.C. from the aceramic Neolithic age, another settlement layer from the Calcolithic age dating back to 4750 B.C was found. Hacilar is a settlement attracting attention especially by its ceramics.


Architecture


In the late Neolithic period, adjoining houses with stone foundations and adobe walls were built. These were the dwellings whose walls and floors were plastered and had flat soil covered roofs. In the first Calcolithic period, other than dwellings, houses and temples, a new type of structure, the pottery workshops appeared. This is important in terms of architecture being directed to different functions.


Sculpturing


As in Catalhoyuk, the Mother Goddess cult is prevalent here as well. The goddess was illustrated alone or with animals like leopards in the figurines that were found.

Changes in peoples’ lives showed their influence in the art as well. As hunting became less important, woman’s fertility and the nourishing mother earth idols gain strength as a production related symbol. One of the most important symbols of this period is a sculpture depicting a large; almond shaped eyed, a plump and naked goddess mother with her son. They were generally made from fired clay, and more rarely from stone.

In the first Calcolithic period, we see many fired clay goddess mother sculptures and they are of much better made in respect to the earlier examples.


Ceramics


In Hacilar, earthenware pots, and pans were widespread in the late Neolithic period. Their typical shape had tubular handles attached vertically near the brim.

Fine workmanship and decoration of earthenware pots from the first calcolithic period are first class examples. They are almost the same shape and size. Hacilar pots can be separated into two groups: Single coloured and multicoloured. Multicoloured pots are unique examples with red or brown decorations on top of cream or a light colour base. In case of decorations, we can define another category of geometric and ornamental.

We also see animal shaped pots and anthropomorphic or human shaped pots.