When the country was occupied by foreign countries after the Ottoman Empire collapsed following World War I, Turkish nation engaged in a War of Liberation under the leadership of Mustafa Kemal. After the war was won and Lausanne Peace Treaty was signed, Mustafa Kemal united Anadolu ve Rumeli Mudafaai Hukuk Cemiyeti" (Society for the Defense of the Rights of Thrace and Anatolia) founded during the war and converted them into the Republican People's Party and entered the general chairmanship of the party. The purpose of the Republican People's Party which would continue the understanding of national struggle in a civil environment was to modernize the country, implement the system, associations and life style of the west adopted as model.
On 23rd of October in 1923, the Republic was adopted, which was considered the most important renovation. Mustafa Kemal, the leader of National Struggle was unanimously elected as the first president of Turkey. And he appointed Ismet Pasha (Inonu) as the prime minister. Four months after the proclamation of the Republic, Turkish Grand National Assembly abolished the Caliphate and decided to expatriate the members of the Ottoman Dynasty (3rd of March in1924).
In order to form a modern state and society, it was necessary that religious and state affairs be separated and freedom of religion and conscience for individuals be provided. Because of this a caliphate association, The Ministry of Shariah and Foundations was abolished and Chairmanship of Religious Affairs and the Directorate of Foundations, connected to the Prime Ministry were founded. Thanks to the Unification of Education Law, religious school order was abolished and all schools and educational matters were united under the Ministry of National Education. Thanks to the Judicial Organization Law, shariah courts were replaced by secular courts. After the promulgation of the Hat Law on the 25th of November in 1925, the wearing of turban and fez were banned and the "hat" became the national headgear. On the 26th of November in 1925, the international hour and calendar systems were adopted. On the 30th of November in 1925, dervish lodges, small lodges and enshrines and the titles of religious sects were abolished.
The Republic of Turkey is governed by a parliamentary democracy. There is a state structure based on the separation of powers. The principle of the separation of three powers composed of Legislation, Execution and Judiciary is grounded.
In Turkey, governed with the republican regime, the President is the president of the State. He represents the union of the Republic of Turkey and Turkish Nation with this title. He respects the implementation of the Constitution and the systematic and harmonious performance of the State organs.
The Turkish Grand National Assembly (TBMM) is the parliament of the Republic of Turkey as the legislation organ. 550 deputies elected by the nation officiate under The Turkish Grand National Assembly for certain periods as a requirement of the Constitution and perform duties such as making a law and inspecting the government via various ways.
The capital city of Turkey is Ankara and the biggest city is Istanbul. Istanbul, one of the biggest and important metropolises of the world, has characteristics of being a capital city of the empire for uninterrupted 1500 years.
The republic of Turkey is a democratic, secular and a social state of law. United Nations, NATO, European Parliament and Organization of Islamic Conference are some of the international organizations Turkey is a member of. Negotiations for full membership of European Union have been going on since 3rd of October in 2005.