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MOSQUES AND COMPLEXES      


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After the conquest of Istanbul, some churches were turned into mosques. However, many beautiful unique mosques were also constructed. Some of them are master works of the architectural history.


The Fatih Mosque


This mosque is the biggest mosque of the clasical mosque measurements of the Sultan Mehmet II era and with its proportion and architecture has been an example for the late built, Istanbul and Edirne mosques. The mosque consists of a complex of buildings adjacent to it, has a diameter of 26 meters, and is located in a big architectural community center which consists of hundreds of domes. Its dome was wrecked in the year 1765 in a big earthquake and is in its present state since the Mustafa III era.


The Beyazit Mosque


Beyazit II gave his name to the entire district and had constructed a complex which consists of a madrasah, alms house, caravansarai, school, Turkish bath and mausoleum. The mosques architect was supposedly Architect Hayrettin and was completed between the years 1501–1505. The internal space had been enlarged by adding another half dome each to the center of the main dome and toward the center. The diameter of the main dome is 16, 80 meters. It is Istanbuls oldest selatin mosque.


The Shehzade Mosque


Suleyman (Kanuni Sultan) I, had a mosque, a complex that consisted of a madrasah, alms home, tabhane, school, caravansarai and cells built in the memory of his son that he loved very much that died at the age of 21. Architect Sinan designed the complex that was located near the Bozdogan Aqueduct. Sinan regarded the Shehzade Mosque as a work of his apprenticeship. The 38 meters square cornered area, is covered by a half dome on each of the four sides of the center dome which has a diameter of 19 meters and several small domes that cover the corner areas. The structure completes in a whole with a arched courtyard. It has a compatible and spacious interior and owns a moderate decorative plan. The exterior domes have a harmonic rythmic lineup effect.


The Uskudar Pier Mosque


A complex which consists of two mausoleums, madrasah, school, alms house, turkish bath, caravansarai and fountain, which is located in Uskudar and designed by Architect Sinan, was built for the daughter of Suleyman I and Sultan Mihrimah, the wife of Sadrazam Rushtem Pahsa. The1547 constructed mosque is located on a high platform that sights the Pier Square. The ten meter sized middle dome enclosed on all three sides, by half domes.


The Suleymaniye Mosque


Sinan qualified the mosque that was constructed during the years 1550–1557, as his journeyship work. It is located in the center of a large sized complex. The complex which consists of several domes provides an important contribution to Istanbul’s appearance. Equipment and supplies were bought from all over the Ottoman geography for the construction of the mosque. Similiar to the Shehzade Mosque, this mosque also gains wholeness with its fountain arched courtyard. There are two lateral cupolas and two other half-domes connected to the the main dome which has a diameter af 27,40 meters and is 53 meters in height located in the center of the spacious complex and direction of the praying niche. One large one small lined up dome was used in the coverage of the main dome. The structure which consisted of 4 heavy piers and columns has a mild effect of light gained by its 128 windows. Two of the four minarets having 10 balconies that symbolize Suleyman (The Magnificent Sultan) I, which was the Ottomans tenth and after the conquer of Istanbul its fourth Padishah, were constructed shorter to keep accordance with the prone land. Sultan Suleyman (The Magnificent) I, Sultan Hurrem and architect Sinan’s tombs are in the complex.


The Istanbul Rustempasha Mosque


This structure that was built for Sultan Suleyman (The Magnificent) the first’s Grand vizier and son in law Rushtem Pasha, was designed by Architect Sinan and is located on the overlook of the Golden Horn, right toward the Egypt Bazaar but away from its crowd. The mosque has a plain and undecorated exterior appearance but it attains impressive features starting from the end and majoring in the entire interior with its rich ceramic decoration. It is one of the distinguished examples of Ottoman ceramic artistry, from its rarely found coverage system to its ceramic covered interior.


The Edirnekapi Mihrimah Sultan Mosque and Complex


Architect Sinan started to build a mosque and complex on behalf of Sultan Mihrimah right after her death, which deceased in the year 1558. This work of art, which is located in Edirnekapi includes; a mosque, madrasah, school, and Turkish bath. The mosque is formed by three vertical developed naphthas. While the wide middle naphtha is covered with a grand dome which has a diameter of 19 meters, the side naphthas are covered with three domes each. The mosque has one minaret.


The Sultanahmet Mosque (Blue Mosque) and Complex


It is located right near the Sultanahmet Square and is also known as the Blue Mosque. The complex consists of a mosque, sultan palace, madrasah, arasta, recovery house, imprint house, alms house, and moseluems. It was built during the Ahmet I era by Architect Sedefkar Mehmet Aga during the years 1609–1617. This complex which is one of symbol structures that belong to Istanbul consists of the Sultanahmet Mosque on the same axes of Hagia Sophia. The center dome which has a diameter of 23,50 and 43 meter height, is placed on 4 large piers that have a diameter of 5 meters. Half domes were connected to the center dome on all 4 sides. It was enlarged by two half domes connected to the side that was facing the prayer niche and three semi domes each to the others. Little domes that were placed at the corners of the 64x72 metered quadrilateral spaces completed its top coverage system. In front of the mosque there is a 30 domed porch and a courtyard with a fountain. Both the interior and the exterior are in a accordance with its interior and exterior design. It has a fascinating atmosphere with its majority of more than 260 coloured glass windows, which illuminates the inside, more than 20 thousand Iznik ceramics and the usage of the color white. Its six minarets give the mosque a different uniqueness from other mosques.


The Yeni Mosque and Complex


The mosque that is located right beside Eminonu Square began to be constructed in the Mehmet III era by Architect Davut and was completed about 50 years later in 1663 during the Mehmet IV era by Architect Mustafa Aga. The mosque was designed along with a madrasah, arasta (Egyptian bazaar), moseuleum, fountain and sebil, sultan palace, and school. It was the last Grand clasical Ottoman design. It has a coverage system of a half dome on each of the four sides of the center dome, smiliar to the Shehzade and Sultanahmet mosques. The domes diameter is 16,20 meters and is 36 meters in height. The structures unique high walled courtyard and the stairway that lead to the courtway entrance are an entegral part of the city’s day life. Rich ceramics and ornaments are present in the mosque.


The Uskudar Yeni Valide Mosque and Complex


The mosque and complex which were constructed during the Ahmet III era, between the years 1708 – 1710, is one of Uskudar’s most imortant Ottoman works. The mosque does not reflect the Tulip design effects that were expansive during that period. It stands out with its traditional clasical design. The open tomb of Sultan Valide and the marble sebils geometrical bronze lattice placed right next to it in the outer courtyard attract attention.


Nuruosmaniye Camii ve Külliyesi


Unttitled


The Laleli Mosque


The most important structure of the Mustafa III era that reflects the Baroque design is the Laleli Mosque. The architect of this 1759–1763 constructed mosque is Mehmet Tahir Aga. The feature that gives the structure the most important Baroque effect is its general height and high dome tassel. However, the siding is not as harmonic as the Nuruosmaniye Mosque. The stairway, the oyster shell motif that was used on the frontal of the courtyard fountain, the boroque ornaments used on the entrace door frontal, west affected Corinth and ion method used on the columns has revealed the structures baroque character.


The Eyup Sultan Mosque


The structure that is located in Eyup was completed beween the years1798–1800 and reflects the Baroque and Rococo characteristics. Eyup was an important place for the Padishahs. When the padishahs got ascended to the throne, they besieged their swords here. The Eyup Sultan Mosque is the last monumental demonstration of the eight based grouped mosques. The high tasseled dome is the general part of the exterior of the structure and is the most important Boroque factor. It is common to see the Baroque and Rococo design in several parts of the structure. The Baroque motif was used on the prayer niche and its entrance door and on the scripture on the frontal of the courtyard entrance. Also, the S motif and cartridge are found on both sides of the mosque entrance door. Floral motifs exist on the post heads.


The Nusretiye Mosque


Along with the Baroque and Rococo style, west effective emperical styles also affected Ottoman artistry during the Mahmut II period (1808–1839).These effects were used in the Nusretiye Mosque, which is located in Tophane and was completed in the year 1826. It attracts importance, in the sultan mess typical empirical division. There are two sets of Baroque designed stairways in the land entrance. The Baroque design was also used in the minaret, base, and wavy crown. The mosque’s high tasseled dome also enhances the baroque effect. The arch line on the siding, the lock stones on the windows and the minaret’s ribbed body that resembles a antique column are empirical features. The Nusretiye Mosque attracts importance by the existence of two adverse designs, two western styles such as Baroque and empirical and protecting the structures general outlook of the Ottoman identity.


The Dolmabahche Mosque


Nikogus Balyan built it during the Abdulmecit era (1839–1861) on the present Dolmabahce seaside between the years 1853–1854. Abdulmecit’s mother Bezmi Alem has ordered the construction of the structure. A sovereign unit takes place in front of the square planned single domed structure. The reinforced towers in the corners are baroque designed. Akant leaves decorate the ribbed minaret’s crowned bottoms. The inner section of the bright part of the mosque is extremely decorated and the baroque design was generally used.


The Hirka-i Sherif Mosque


Abdulmecit constructed the mosque that is located in the Atikali neighborhood in Fatih, in the year 1850. The sweater that Profit Muhammed gave Veysel Karani as a gift is under protectection in the domed section of the prayer niche.


The Ortakoy (Big Mecidiye) Mosque


Nikogus Balyan built the mosque that is located in Ortakoy, on the bosphor seaside, during the years 1854–1855. Three sides of the structure, that was ordered to be constructed by Abdulmecit, is placed on a pier surrounded by the sea. Intense decorated verticle mosque mass has reflected a concave waviness of a harmonic exterior formation. The circular two story arched Windows are seperated with monumental domes. The akant leaves that are under the minaret crown were veneered in gold. The Ortakoy Mosque is an imposing structure. The horizantal additional structure mass creates is opposite with its simplicity. The mosque is located in a presently, social active area.


The Aksaray Valide Mosque


This mosque that was ordered to be constructed by Sultan Pertevniyal Sultan in the year 1871, which shows patches of orientalistic design features, was designed in an eclectic style. The Italian architect Montani constructed it.


The Bebek Mosque


Architect Kemalletin designed the mosque that is located near the bebek pier, related to the neo-clasical design in the year 1913.


Other Mosques


The Byzantine Era Religious Structures in Istanbul


Several Churches were constructed in Istanbul when the city was the capital city of the Roman Empire in the 4th century, until Mehmet (Fatih Sultan) II conquered İstanbul in the year 1453. Some of then are still present with out any change, some of them were protected after they were turned into mosques and some of them do not existence presently tdue to the damage they recieved in eartquakes and fires. Some of these structures are serve as museums.

The Imrahor Ilyas Bey Mosque (Studio Monastery Church)


The structure that was construted in the early 5th century is located in the Yedikule district. It is one of the oldest structures that belong to the Byzantine era in Istanbul. It is defined as Studios from the establisher of the church and monastery. The monastery served as an important religious center in the Byzantine era. During the Latin invasion the church-monastery was swverely damaged and was renovated. A thick wall was built arround it in the 13th century. Travellers that came to Istanbul in the 13th and 15th century spoke of the churches decorations and splendid look. After the conquer of Istanbul the structure was transforned into a mosque by Ilyas Bey in the year 1486. Later on, after several different earthquakes and fires, the structure was severely damaged and in 1908 its roof decayed and is present in its unrepaired condition. It is a typical Bazilika planned structure, with its two lined columnn series which seperates into three naphthas. Only the left column series is present in our day. The apsis section’s top part belongs to the Byzantines and the bottom part belongs to the Turkish era, the windows were designed in Baroque style. Only the posts, post heads and one part of the architectural item of rich flooring ornaments was origanally protected. The structures walls are weaved straight cutted stone and brick series.

The Little Hagia Sophia Mosque (St. Sergios and St Bacchos Church)


The Small Hagia Sophia Mosque is located between the neighborhoods Cankurtaran and Kadirga which are located in the Eminonu district and is placed about 20 meters away from the Marmara walls southern sea. It is one of Istanbuls most important center planned Byzantine structures that exists in its best shape in our present day. The exact location of one of the Grand Palace’s, which is known as the Hormidas Palace pavillions that was dedicated to two saints named Sergios and Bacchos, is located somewhere near the structure and next to it a Bazilical planned church dedicated to Havari Petrus and Paolos is not known. The construction of this church, started as soon as Justinianus gained control in the year 527 and completed in the year 536. The Gate Vizier Huseyin Vizier transformed the structure that served as a church for about 1000 years into a mosque after the conquest of Istanbul during the Beyazit era in the year 1504. The Small Hagia Sophia is an unorganized quadrilateral planned structure. In the inner part of the structure a series of piers and columns and in the middle area an octagon is present. The middle area enlarged with semicircular shaped niches. The structure’s plan characteristics have a connection with the San Vitale in Ravenna and The palace Church in Aachen. The Little Hagia Sophia started to be constructed arround the same time with San Vitale and was completed before it. The fish and molding on the structure are beautiful examples of the era that it was built in.

The Bodrum Mosque (The Myralion Church)


Emporer Romanos Lekapenos I (920–944) established the structure that is located in Laleli. It was constructed over a large structure ruin that belonged to the Roman era. Mesih Pasha transformed the Closed Greek Cross plan typed structure into a mosque during the Murat III era. In the meantime, it has been through important changes. It was ruined in the Laleli fire and stayed that way for many years. The structures dome was repaired and its originality was protected. The mosque reflects typical features of the middle Byzantine era with its high crown and wavy tassel line.

The Zeyrek Mosque (The Pantokrator Monastary Church)


It is the most monumental example of the closed Greek cross typed plan and is the second present Byzantine structure in Istanbul, after the Hagia Sophia. The complete building was transfomed into a mosque during the Sultan Mehmet (Fatih) II, However the south wing is presently being used as a mosque. (Fatih) Sultan Mehmet II transformed the surviving buildings of the Pantokrator into a madarasah and placed the era’s most Wiseman Zeyrek Mehmed Efendi in charge of it until he ordered the construction of his own mosque and complex after the conquer of Istanbul. This is the reason that this structure and its located district named ‘Zeyrek’. It exists of a whole structure of three adjacent churches. The big church that was designed in a Greek cross plan that is located on the South was ordered to be constructed by emperor Ioannes Komnenos II (1118–1143) and was dedicated to Jesus. The small church in between does not belong to a plan type and was dedicated to head angel Mikhael. The church on the west is a Greek cross type and was dedicated to Mary. By the left ruins we can see that the structures wall was decorated in mosaic. According to the mosaic flooring that has reached the present in the best condition, it takes place as one of the perfect examples of the emboss technique from the Byzantine era.

The Kalenderhane Mosque (The Diyakonnissa Church)


Sultan Mehmet II (Fatih) transformed the structure which is located on the Bozdogan aqueduct’s Shehzade side, into a mosque for the army’s bohemian (kalender) dervish, and for that reason was given the named the Kalenderhane Mosque. As a comeback of the cornered wall Greek cross typed plan that was in use on the exterior siding colored marble covering and rich adornments similiar to mosaic floorings appear in the interior. The structure has gained its original condition since 1970, after the researches made by The University of Istanbul Technique and The English Archeology Institute.

The Vefa Mosque (The Hagios Theodoros Church)


The structure is remains approximately from the 11th century; it is a covered Greek cross plan type. Shemseddin Pasha has transformed it into a mosque after Istanbul’s conquer. Pictures were found in the outer nartex domes in researches that have been made in the year 1937. Eight saints are portraited on the second right dome.

The Ahmet Pahsa Small Mosque (The Hagios Ioannes Church)


It is located in Charshamba Bazaar in the Fatih District. The covered Greek cross plan typed structure is guessed to be constructed in the 12th century. It was transformed into a mosque during the Murat III era. It owns a high crowned dome.

The Feneri Jesus Mosque (The Constantine Lips Monastery Church)


The structure which is located on Aksaray Vatan Street exists of two adjacent churches. The church on the North side that was constructed in a covered Greek cross plan is dated 910 and the founder is Konstantinos Lips, who had an important position in the Byzantine era. This Mary dedicated church had been pillaged in the Latin invasion period. Theodora the wife of Mikhael VIII ordered the renovation and the construction of a church located in the south, in the year 1282 dedicated to Ioannes Promodos began. This second church is labyrinth planned. Fenari Alaatin transformed the structure into a mosque and a small dervish lodge during the Beyazit II era.

The Fethiye Mosque (The Pammakaristos Monastery Church)


It was constructed on a hill in Charshaba Fatih that sights the Golden Horn.The construction of this labyrinth designed church was ordered by a Byzantine aristocrat. The mosaics in the structure are examples of the Byzantine era mosaic artistry. The Deises theatre located in the apsis half dome, the wall of the Vaftiz stage and several major religious mens portraits are found here.
1- Mahmut Pahsa Mosque - Mahmut Pasha - 1462 - Mehmet II
2- Murat Pahsa Mosque - Aksaray - 1472 - Mehmet II
3- Greek Mehmet Pahsa Mosque - Uskudar - 1471/1472 - Mehmet II
4- Davut Pasha Mosque - 1485 - Beyazit II
5- Atik Ali Pahsa Mosque - Chemberlitash - 1497 - Beyazit II
6- Atik Ali Pasha Mosque - Zincirlikuyu - Beyazit II
7- Bali Pasha Mosque - Fatih - 1504 - Beyazit II
8- Sultan Selim Mosque - Fatih - Selim I
9- Cezeri Kasim Pasha Mosque - Eyup - 1515 - Selim I
10- Choban Mustafa Pasha Mosque - Gebze - 1523 - Suleyman I
11- Piri Mehmet Pasha Mosque - Silivri - 1530/1531 - Suleyman I
12- Haseki Complex - Haseki - 1539 - Suleyman I
13- Hadim Ibrahim Pasha Mosque - Silivrikapi - 1551 - Suleyman I
14- Sinan Pasha Mosque - Beşiktash - 1555 - Suleyman I
15- Kara Ahmet Pasha Mosque - Topkapi - Suleyman I
16- Molla Chelebi Mosque - Findikli - Suleyman I
17- Zal Mahmut Pasha Mosque - Eyup - 1566/1568 - Selim I
18- Sokollu Complex - Kadirga - 1571/1572 - Selim I
19- Piyale Pasha Mosque - Kasimpasha - 1573 - Selim I
20- Sokollu Mehmet Pasha Mosque - Azapkapi - 1577 - Murat III
21- Eski Valide Mosque - Uskudar - 1577/1580 - Murat III
22- Shemsi Pasha Complex - Uskudar - 1580 - Murat III
23- Kilich Alipasha Mosque - Tophane - Murat III
24- Ivaz efendi Mosque - Eyup - 1585 - Murat III
25- Mehmet Aga Mosque Charshamaba, Fatih 1585 Murat III
26- Ramazan Efendi Mosque - Kocamustafapasha - 1586 - Murat III
27- Mesih Pasha Mosque - Fatih - 1586 - Murat III
28- Nishanci Mehmet Pasha Mosque - Fatih - 1588 - Murat III
29-Cerrah Pasha Mosque - Cerrahpasha - 1593 - Murat III
30- Sinan Pasha Complex - Divan Road - 1593 - Murat III
31- New Valide Mosque - Eminonu - 1598/1599 - Mehmet III
32- Gazanfer Aga Complex - Sarachhanebashi - 1595/1596 - Mehmet III
33- Kuyucu Murat Pasha Complex - Aksaray - 160/1606 - Ahmet I
34- Ekmekcioglu Ahmet Pasha Complex - Vefa - 1610/1611 - Ahhmet I
35- Bayrampasha Complex Haseki - 1624 -Murat IV
36- Chinili Mosque Uskudar 1640 Murat IV
37- Chorlulu Ali Pasha Complex - Divan Road - 1708 - Ahmet III
38- Damat Ibrahim Pasha Complex - Shehzadebashi - 1720 - Ahmet III
39- Hekimoglu Ali Pasha Complex - Cerrahpasha - 1734 - Mahmut I
40- Seyid Hasan Pasha Complex - Beyazid - 1745 - Mahmut I
41- Haci Beshir Aga Complex - Cagaloaglu - 1745 - Mahmut I
42- Ayazma Mosque -Uskudar - 1757 - Mustafa III
43- Beylerbeyi Mosque - Beylerbeyi - 1778 - Abdulhamit I
44- Shebsefa Mosque - Unkapani - 1787 - Abdulhamit theI
45- Selimiye Mosque - Uskudar - 1805/1810 - Selim III
46- Kuchuk Efendi Complex - Kocamustafapasha - 1825 - Mahmut III
47- Kuchuk Mecidiye Mosque - Beshiktash - 1848 - Abdulmecit
48- Hirka-i Sherif Mosque - Fatih - 1850 - Abdulmecit


Istanbul Mausoleums


There are about 400 mausoleums that belong to padishahs, sultan’s sons, government high officials, scholars ana artists located in Istanbul.

Mehmet (Fatih Sultan) II Mausoleums;

It is located behind the Fatih Mosque niche wall. The 10 cornered mausoleums were damaged in the 1765 earthquake and were renovated close to its original shape. The octagon Gulbahar Hatun Mausoleum beside it belongs to Mehmet II’s wife was also renewed. One of the oldest mausoleums that belong to the Mehmet II era in Istanbul is the Mahmut Pasha Mausoleum and built in the year 1473. The mausoleum which is located in the Mahnut Pasha graveyard is a free stone octagon and its outter siding is covered in navy blue turquoise ceramics.

The Beyazid II Mausoleum;

it is located on the South of the Beyazid Mosque, is built of free stone is simple and atracts attention as a octagon structure. The Selim (Yavuz Sultan) I Mausoleum is an octagon structure and is located behind the mosque that carries its name, the Sultan Selim Mosque

The Barboros Hayrettin Pasha Mausoleum;

was built by the architect Sinan and is a free stoned, front arched, octagon, domed simple structure.

Architect Sinan built the Suleyman I Mausoleum which is part of the Suleymaniye Complex. The arched exterior surrounded by 29 domed arches, gives the structure uniqueness. The structure’s interior is octagonal and there are ceramic panels on both sides of the door located on the exterior. In the interior, there is a verse inscription of generation on the ceramics that cover the walls. It attracts attention with engraved ornaments, its wooden door, and the geometrical motifs on the windows. Beside it stands the Hurrem Sultan Mausoleum. This rather simple mausoleum is a marble octagon shaped mausoleum and the interior is ceramic covered.

The Sokullu Mehmet Pasha Mausoleum located in Eyup is also one of Architect Sinans Works. Free stone was used on the mausoleum. The exterior, octagon shaped and the interior has sixteen corners.

The 1602 dated Ibrahim Pasha Mausoleum that is located in the graveyard of the Shehzade Mosque has also continued the use of the octagon shaped interior and sizteen corner exterior plan.

Several Mausoleums which belong to people of the Ottoman palace are in the Hagia Sophia graveyard. One of then are the Selim II Mausoleum, which is one of Architect Sinan’s works and its geometrical workmanship which is found on the nacre decorated door attracts attention. Again, a mausoleum which is located here is one of Architect Sinan’s student Architect Davut Aga’s works. There are rich ceramic decorations on the front of the hexagon mausoleum, both sides of the arched entrance door and inner walls. Engraved ornaments are found on the inside of the dome. Also, the 1608 dated Mehmet III Mausoleum is located in the Hagia Sophia Graveyard. There are ceramic and engraved ornaments on the octagon shaped structure. The smallest mausoleum which is there is the octagon shaped Shehzade Mausoleum. There are hexagon shaped star motif ceramics on both sides of the entrance door behind the archway.

The Ahmet I Mausoleum located in the Sultanahmet Complex was built in the year 1619 by architect Mehmet Aga, is one of the biggest Ottoman mausoleums. The marble covered structure attracts attention with its nacre decorated door and ceramics. Mehmet IV, Mustafa II, Ahmet III, Mahmut I and Osman II also rest in peace here.

The Mustafa III Mausoleum which is located near the Laleli Mosque is 1773 dated. The bottom section is marble, the top is free stone and the exterior is decorated with baroque decorations such as akant leaves. Selim III also rests in peace here.

However, the Abdulmecit Mausoleum is located in Bahchekapi. The Baroque fountains placed at the corners attract attention of the 1798 dated marble structure.

Selim III’s mother Mihrishah Sultan Mausoleum was contructed in the year 1792 and is located in Eyup. The marble structure is close to a circular shape and is a 12 cornered plen. The mausoleum is simple, harmonic and reflects the developed Baroque design.

Mahmut II’s mother’s Nakshidil Sultan Mausoleum is 1825 dated and located in Ftaih. The Baroque and Empirical designs were both used in this structure’s circular plan. The structure which was constructed with white marble, together with a fountain has oval windows. The baroque design was used in its wavy surface, the empirical design was used in the fabric curved motifs and post heads.

The Mahmut II Mausoleum, which is one of the most popular mausoleums located in Istanbul was built in the year 1840 and ia located in Cagaloglu. The marble covered mausoleum which was completely designed with an empirical style has a long graveyard siding and a fountain facing the street. A large marble cube is placed on it. There are large monumental arches, wall buried columns and blocked scriptures. Cokades are placed in the corners. The cemetary entrance door is simple and monumental. The simple and circular fountain is in empirical character. The railings are reflecting empiricil features. Abdulaziz and abdulhamit II lay here.

One of Istanbul’s attention attracting mausoleum structure’s is the 1869 dated Fuat Pasha Mausoleum, located in Sultanahmet. The octagon shaped structure, which was built for Kechicizade Fuat Pasha, was an oriental design of the Abdulaziz era.

Mehmet (Fatih Sultan) II Mausoleums


It is located behind the Fatih Mosque niche wall. The 10 cornered mausoleums were damaged in the 1765 earthquake and were renovated close to its original shape. The octagon Gulbahar Hatun Mausoleum beside it belongs to Mehmet II’s wife was also renewed. One of the oldest mausoleums that belong to the Mehmet II era in Istanbul is the Mahmut Pasha Mausoleum and built in the year 1473. The mausoleum which is located in the Mahnut Pasha graveyard is a free stone octagon and its outter siding is covered in navy blue turquoise ceramics.

The Beyazid II Mausoleum


it is located on the South of the Beyazid Mosque, is built of free stone is simple and atracts attention as a octagon structure. The Selim (Yavuz Sultan) I Mausoleum is an octagon structure and is located behind the mosque that carries its name, the Sultan Selim Mosque.

The Barboros Hayrettin Pasha Mausoleum


The Barboros Hayrettin Pasha mausoleum was built by the architect Sinan and is a free stoned, front arched, octagon, domed simple structure. Architect Sinan built the Suleyman I Mausoleum which is part of the Suleymaniye Complex. The arched exterior surrounded by 29 domed arches, gives the structure uniqueness. The structure’s interior is octagonal and there are ceramic panels on both sides of the door located on the exterior. In the interior, there is a verse inscription of generation on the ceramics that cover the walls. It attracts attention with engraved ornaments, its wooden door, and the geometrical motifs on the windows. Beside it stands the Hurrem Sultan Mausoleum. This rather simple mausoleum is a marble octagon shaped mausoleum and the interior is ceramic covered. The Sokullu Mehmet Pasha Mausoleum located in Eyup is also one of Architect Sinans Works. Free stone was used on the mausoleum. The exterior, octagon shaped and the interior has sixteen corners. The 1602 dated Ibrahim Pasha Mausoleum that is located in the graveyard of the Shehzade Mosque has also continued the use of the octagon shaped interior and sizteen corner exterior plan. Several Mausoleums which belong to people of the Ottoman palace are in the Hagia Sophia graveyard. One of then are the Selim II Mausoleum, which is one of Architect Sinan’s works and its geometrical workmanship which is found on the nacre decorated door attracts attention. Again, a mausoleum which is located here is one of Architect Sinan’s student Architect Davut Aga’s works. There are rich ceramic decorations on the front of the hexagon mausoleum, both sides of the arched entrance door and inner walls. Engraved ornaments are found on the inside of the dome. Also, the 1608 dated Mehmet III Mausoleum is located in the Hagia Sophia Graveyard. There are ceramic and engraved ornaments on the octagon shaped structure. The smallest mausoleum which is there is the octagon shaped Shehzade Mausoleum. There are hexagon shaped star motif ceramics on both sides of the entrance door behind the archway. The Ahmet I Mausoleum located in the Sultanahmet Complex was built in the year 1619 by architect Mehmet Aga, is one of the biggest Ottoman mausoleums. The marble covered structure attracts attention with its nacre decorated door and ceramics. Mehmet IV, Mustafa II, Ahmet III, Mahmut I and Osman II also rest in peace here. The Mustafa III Mausoleum which is located near the Laleli Mosque is 1773 dated. The bottom section is marble, the top is free stone and the exterior is decorated with baroque decorations such as akant leaves. Selim III also rests in peace here. However, the Abdulmecit Mausoleum is located in Bahchekapi. The Baroque fountains placed at the corners attract attention of the 1798 dated marble structure. Selim III’s mother Mihrishah Sultan Mausoleum was contructed in the year 1792 and is located in Eyup. The marble structure is close to a circular shape and is a 12 cornered plen. The mausoleum is simple, harmonic and reflects the developed Baroque design. Mahmut II’s mother’s Nakshidil Sultan Mausoleum is 1825 dated and located in Ftaih. The Baroque and Empirical designs were both used in this structure’s circular plan. The structure which was constructed with white marble, together with a fountain has oval windows. The baroque design was used in its wavy surface, the empirical design was used in the fabric curved motifs and post heads. The Mahmut II Mausoleum, which is one of the most popular mausoleums located in Istanbul was built in the year 1840 and ia located in Cagaloglu. The marble covered mausoleum which was completely designed with an empirical style has a long graveyard siding and a fountain facing the street. A large marble cube is placed on it. There are large monumental arches, wall buried columns and blocked scriptures. Cokades are placed in the corners. The cemetary entrance door is simple and monumental. The simple and circular fountain is in empirical character. The railings are reflecting empiricil features. Abdulaziz and abdulhamit II lay here. One of Istanbul’s attention attracting mausoleum structure’s is the 1869 dated Fuat Pasha Mausoleum, located in Sultanahmet. The octagon shaped structure, which was built for Kechicizade Fuat Pasha, was an oriental design of the Abdulaziz era.