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[Ankara]


MUSEUMS AND RUINS      


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Anatolian Civilisations Museum


Located on the south side of Ankara Castle, the Museum is in the two Ottoman buildings in the district known as Atpazari. Mahmut Pasha Bedesteni, one of these two buildings, is assumed to have been built between the years of 1464-1471. According to the recent studies based on historical records and registry books, the Kursunlu Han was built as a foundation to finance Mehmet Pasha's, one of Mehmet the Conqueror's vezirs, alms house in Üsküdar. It does not have an inscription. In the Anatolian Civilisations Museum, considered among the exceptional museums of the world with its unique collections, the Anatolian archaeology is exhibited in a chronological order starting with the Paleolithic era and continuing through the Ottoman era.

As well as the artifacts belonging to Paleolithic, Neolithic, Early Bronze, Assyrian Trading Colonies, Hittite, Phrygian and Urartu periods, several collections of artifacts from the excavations at Karain, Catalhoyuk, Hacilar, Can Hasan, Beyce Sultan, Alacahoyuk, Karaz, Mahmutlar, Eskiyapar, Elmali, Kultepe, Acemhoyuk, Bogazkoy, Gordion, Pazarli, Altintepe, Adilcevaz and Patnos; and the examples belonging to Greek, Roman and Byzantian eras are exhibited in chronological order at the side saloons of the old bazaar building. In the middle saloon of the bazaar building, the stone reliefs belonging to the entry gates of the cities Alacahoyuk of Hittite Empire, and Malatya, Karkamis, Sakcagozu for Late Hittites are exhibited as they were found during the excavation.


Etnographical Museum


This museum was founded on a hill with a Muslim graveyard at the Namazgah district of Ankara. The museum was opened to the public in 1930. The iner courtyard of the building was served as the temporary burial site for Ataturk in November 1938, and his body was kept there till 1953 when his body was moved to Anitkabir. This section is still preserved as a tomb in symbolic respect of the memory of Atatürk.

In this museum can be seen the rare and precious examples of the Traditional Turkish Handicraf. The museum has a specialized library where you can find the works related to Anatolian ethnography, folk art and history of fine arts. The works of different metals, weaving, cloth, woodwork and the examples of bows, pistols, rifles and swords are exhibited in this museum.


Museum of the Republic ( II. Parliament Hall)


The museum in Ulus Square was opened to public in 1981. The main entrance hall which stretches all along the entry facade and has stairs at opposite ends is covered with a ceiling on which there are Seljuk and Ottoman ornaments and patterns.

Its star patterned timber ceiling, arcs, cornices and many sections with mosaic decorations, except the crown door and a few other items which are included into the main hall afterwards, reflect the architectural characteristics of its time. Exhibited here are the Parliament Hall with its original furnishings, the rooms where Ataturk's principles and reforms were discussed, photographs and various personal belongings reflecting the era of the first three Prime Ministers: Ataturk, Ismet Inonu and Celal Bayar. In the meeting hall, there is a wax re-incarnation of a section of the Great Speech delivered by Ataturk between the 15-20 October 1927.


Museum of the War of Independence (1st Parliament Building)


The building situated in Ulus Square consists of the corridor, the Presidential Board, the Chambers of the Ruling Council, the Committee Room, the Break Room, the Administrative Rooms, the Parliamentary Meeting Hall, Masjid, Office of Parliament Head, the storage for photographs and other items, and the basement which is used as an exhibition hall.


Anitkabir


Rasattepe (Anittepe) was chosen for Anitkabir, the eternal resting place of the Republic’s founder and leader, Mustafa Kemal Ataturk. The Free Project Competition was organized for the construction of Anitkabir in 1st March 1941. An objective jury, whose members were high architects determined by the internationally famous Turkish and non-Turkish artists and the Ministry of Public Works, was assigned by the Government for this competition. The total of 47 projects from Turkey, Germany, Italy, Austria, Switzerland, France and Czechoslovakia entered into the competition. In 18th March 1943, the jury decided to carry out the project of Professor Emin Onat and Assistant Professor Orhan Arden. The construction of Anitkabir, whose foundation was laid with a ceremony in 9th October 1944, was completed at four phases in a period of 9 years. It covers an area of 750.000 square meters and is divided into two sections, which are Peace Park and Monument Block.

Peace Park


The park has been created with sapling from several regions of Turkey and from several foreign countries. Today, the Peace Park contains approximately 48.500 trees and plants, from 104 different species.

Monument Block


The Monument Block contains three parts.

Lion Road
Ceremony Area
Mausoleum

When entered from Tandogan gate, the road in Peace Park leads to 26 stepped wide stairs to the Lion Road. At the top of the stairs, independence and liberty turrets can be seen facing one another.

In the Anıtkabir building complex, there are ten turrets, which are placed symmetrically.

Anitkabir Ataturk Museum: A number of Ataturk's personal belongings, the gifts presented to him, the clothes that he wore are exhibited in the museum. Exhibited here are also the medals of Ataturk.


MTA Natural History Museum


The museum founded by Mineral Research and Exploration Institute in 1968 is situated in the building of institute on the Eskisehir highway. Exhibited in the museum are the samples of minerals and stones belonging to the various phases of the geology and collected during the geological works done from 1935 till today. The ground floor of the museum with three floors has totally been allocated to paleontology. Exhibited are the samples of fossils of almost 3000 years, the skeleton of the Maras elephant in an assembled form. The giant ammonite of 1,5 m in diameter that lived in the vicinity of Ankara 193 million years ago, and the fossilized footprints of humans who lived in Anatolia 25,000 years ago can also be seen in the museum. Moreover, the animals which are typical in Turkey and are gradually dying out can be seen in their natural habitats.


State Museum of Painting and Sculpture


The building situated next to the Ethnographical Museum in the Namazgah Hill in Ankara was designed by the Architect Arif Hikmet Koyunoglu and was built in 1927. It is among the examples of Turkish architecture during the Republic Period. In the museum are the outstanding examples of Turkish paintings from the beginning of the 19th century on and of Turkish plastic art of about 100 years. In the museum, as well as the library of plastic arts enriching in diversity each and every day, there are plants of paintings, sculptures and ceramics where amateur and professional artists can work


The Roman Bath


It is located on Cankiri Street stretching through Ulus Square till Yildirim Bayazit Square. The remains of the Roman Bath in Ankara which can be seen today are underground warming installations and service sections. The coins and inscriptions obtained during the excavations in the bath and the architectural foundlings such as Corinth caps have shown that the building was built during the reign of the Emperor Karakalla (211-217) and was restored during the Byzantine period. Today, a rich collection covering the inscriptions collected from the city of Ankara in the Roman period is exhibited.


Gordion and Gordion Museum


Gordion, one of the most important antique cities in the Central Anatolia, is located in the Yassihoyuk village 21 km west of Polatli, 96 km southwest of Ankara. It is known that Gordion was first used as a settlement towards the end of 3000 B.C. (Early Bronze Age). It has been established that the antique city has various settlement layers belonging to the Hittites, Phrygians, Greeks and Romans from this age on. Gordion lost its importance and turned into a small settlement under the Roman rule. The tumuluses are scattered over the valley east of the Yassihoyuk village. These are tombs covered with mounds of accumulated soil and made of timber. Their total number is over 80. The largest tumulus in Gordion is the one which is thought to belong to King Midas. This tomb is the second largest tumulus with its diameter of 300 m and its height of 53 m. In the tomb room have been found one male skeleton, one wooden table and two wooden folding screens, three large boilers, 166 bronze vessels of various sizes and 145 fibulas at the bedside of the skeleton. The most important one among the other tumuluses in Gordion is the accumulated tomb named as P tumulus and assumed to have been built around 700 B.C. A child skeleton and toys such as a wooden lion, horse and deer have been found inside the tomb’s room of this tumulus of 80 m in diameter and 12 m at height, which showed that this tumulus was a child’s tomb. Also, 40 ceramic vessels have been found in this tumulus. Most of the works found during the excavations in Gordion are preserved in Ankara - Anatolian Civilisations Museum and in Gordion Museum.


The Temple of Augustus


One of the most important buildings which have survived till today from ancient periods, the Temple of Augustus is situated adjacent to the Haci Bayram Mosque in Ulus. Out of four copies of will and testament submitted by the Emperor Augustus to vesta nuns before his death, ‘Index rerum gestarum’ which is the last copy enumerating his accomplishments throughout his life is located on the temple walls in Greek and Latin written form. Through the big and magnificent gate, you enter into the interior part of the holy building and a covered passage known as pronaos. There is opisthodomos with two columns in the Corinth order among the antes at the other end of the temple. The temple was turned into a church in the Byzantian period in the 5th century by making some additions and adding windows.


Julian's Column


This is located at the small square between the Financial Directorate and the Governor's building in Ulus. The column of 15 m at height is made of bricks in the form of overlapping rings on a square pedestal. This column ends with the Corinth cap during the Byzantian period. The column is thought to have been set up in honor of Emperor Julian’s visit to Ankara in 362.


Gavurkale


It is a stone relief situated nearby Haymana, 60 km southwest of Ankara. On the relief have three separate god figure been described. There are the remains of tomb’s room 2 meters below the surface.


Kulhoyuk


It is situated nearby the town of Oyaca in the Haymana district. There are ongoing studies in Kulhoyuk, one of the medium-sized tumuluses, under the chairmanship of the Anatolian Civilizations Museum. Its proximity to Gavurkale, the Hittite cult centre about 8 km west of the tumulus indicates that this place was an important Hittite settlement. The monumental potern architecture of a traditional Hittite style, a hidden cistern made in the same style, other archaeological finds dating back to the Early Bronze Age have been found.


Alagoz Military Headquarters Museum


The farmhouse, from which Mustafa Kemal Ataturk directed the Sakarya Line during the War of Independence have been serving as a museum from 10th November 1968.


Aerospace Museum


Exhibited in the museum are various maquettes related to aviation, photographs, documents, pilot clothes and flight equipments.


State Meteorological Service's Museum


In this building used as War Department Staff Headquarters during the War of Independence are meterological devices exhibited.
Ataturk Residence During the National Struggle and the Railway Museum:
The building formerly known as ‘Steering Wheel Building’ was arranged and turned into a museum in 1964. On the ground floor of the museum are exhibited documents about railways, the scissors used during the opening of railway tracks, precious goods, identification cards, tickets and maquettes. On the upper floor is the room where Ataturk accepts his guests, his study and bedroom.



Pink Mansion (Pembe Kosk)


It is open to the public between 10.00 – 17.00 hours on the days of 23rd April, 19th May, 29th October and 10th December. In 1924, ISmet Inonu, the second President of Turkey, bought this building, which was formerly a vineyard house arranged by the Inonu Foundation and opened to the public. In the museum are some belongings and photos of Inonu.


The Postal Service Stamp Museum


Exhibited in the museum are the stamps of 200 different countries as well as the Ottoman and the Turkish stamps in circulation till today.


TCDD Museum


The building, made as ‘Ankara Hotel’ in 1924, was opened to the public as an art gallery and the railway museum after the restoration in 1990.


Ulker Zaim Museum


Exhibited are clothes and jewelries, house appliances and archaeological work belonging to the Ottoman period.


The National Education Administration's Museum for the 75th Anniversary of the Turkish Republic


In the museum opened to the public in 1998 are photographs and books as well as various devices and appliances.


The Atatürk’s House and Museum in the Atatürk Model Farm


The building made in the Ataturk Model Farm, a similar one to the house where Ataturk was born in Thessaloniki, has been open to the public from 10th November 1981.


Beypazarı Culture and History Museum


In the museum, etnographical works of art belonging to Beypazarı and its neighbourhood and some works of art dating back to the ancient Ottoman, Byzantium and Roman times are being exhibited.